Water realm of the earth + Ocean, rivers, etc – Drought, flood
Solid mineral realm, crust plus uppermost part of earth’s mantle + rock, soil – volcanic activity, earthquakes
Plants and animals
+ organic materials that contribute to healthy earth
– endangered species, habitat loss, deforestation
– framentation of species rapidly diminishes numbers
Envelope of gases that encircle the earth + oxygen – Global warming, inversion
What is the name of the earth’s shape?
Diameter of the earth
Pole to pole 7,900 Equator 7927
First person to use word Geography
Erasthenes. -devised latitude and longitude -calculated earth’s tilt relative to sun (23.5 degrees) -devised leap year – calculated earth’s circumference
Like the lines of a ladder. Measures north-south from the equator. Also called parallels about 69 miles per degree Goes to 90 degrees
Measures east-west. Prime Meridian is 0 degrees Also called meridians. Up to 180 degrees
Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic Circle Anarctic Circle North Pole South Pole
Starting point for measuring lattitude Exactly midway between the poles
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn “The Tropics”
-23.5 degrees north and south from the equator -North of the Tropic of Cancer, the sun will never be directly over your head -Vertical rays of the sun are between the Tropics because the sun is high all year round
Prime meridian and International Dateline. They go from pole to pole Int’l dateline opposite the prime meridian
Location of Prime Meridian
How long is a calendar day?
Any line that divides the planet into two equal halves -Equator -Circle of illumination -Prime meridian if combined with int’l dateline
Rotation of the Earth
The earth makes one rotation on its axis every 24 hours (it rotates eastward on its axis)
Revolution of the Earth
Earth makes one revolution around the sun every 364.25 days
March 21, September 21 -Suns rays are on the equator -12 hour day and 12 hour night over the whole earth.
June 21, December 21
Graph that shows vertical rays for every day of the year (similar to figure 8)
Earth’s orbit is more _________ than ________
Point where planet is farthest from the sun. July 4th – 94.5 million miles from the sun Ang layo
Point when earth is closest to the sun -Jan 3rd, 91.5 million miles
Every time zone is 15 degrees wide (at equator) Earth rotates 15 degrees every hour The middle of every zone is based on 15 degrees longitude
Opposite. Reverse the latitude – north becomes south Subtract longitude from 180
Rays of the sun on equator
March 21 and September 21
Bishop Rock Lighthouse
Lighthouse that was built after Scilly Island crash. Captian Chavel
Harrison is the clockmeter who invented the chronometer. Based on 15 degrees per longitude.
Types of maps
-General Reference -drawn to scale -projections -Isolines (countour intervals) -Remote sensing and GIS
What is included in a general reference map?
Major lakes, cities, airports
What is a type of thematic map?
-Political map -bird migration map -it’s a map that tells a story or history of something
What are the types of scale maps?
-Large scale, shows small area with lots of detail -Small scale, shows large area with a little detail
What the two types of map projections?
Conformal map projection
Has meridian and parallels crossing each other at right angle, just like on a globe. The farther you get away from the equator, the greater the distortion of the land area.
Equivalence map projection
Depicts accurate size of land masses, but the shape is distorted
Cylndrical map projection
similar to conformal – imagine cylinder of paper wrapped around an illuminated globe, only touching at the equator.
Plane map projection
flat paper plate, touching earth at one point.Usually the view from the arctic or antartic. The perimeter curves away, so the edges are distorted.
Conic map projection
flat paper, shape into cone, draw earth, lay flat. Most common state map. Curves at top and bottom reflect cone shape
Interrupted map projection
similar to orange peel peeled in one piece. Maintain the shape and mass. Areas of distortion are in the ocean and cut out. Looks like you cut up a globe and then laid it flat.
Contour lines, which connect points of equal value, like elevation
We use this instead of sextants
GPS. Global positioning systems. Three points can determine location within a few yeards. Uses satellites
Any recording device that does not come in contact with the earth. Can determine temp of the ocean
0 Library of information that allows user to collect, retrieve, reorganize, and display geographic data from the real world. 0 Layers showing zoning, flood planes, wetlands, land cover, soils, survey control
The Hydrologic cycle
sun > Evaporation from water > transipration from plants > condensation > precipitation > Transporation/advection (clouds move from over water to over mountains > inflitration into the earth > Runoff – oversaturated earth
water realm of the earth. Oceans have 97.2% of earths water Glaciers 2% Groundwater .5% Lakes and rivers comprise .2%
Oceans by size
1 – Pacific 64 mil sq mile 2 – Atlantic 32 mil sq mile 3 – Indian 28 mil sq mile 4 – Arctic 5 mil sq mile
1. Nile 2. Amazon 3. Mississippi-Missouri 4. Yangtze 5. Ob
1. Caspian Sea 2. Lake Superior 3. Lake Victoria 4. Lake Huron 5. Lake Michigan
Local lakes/dams on Colorado River
Lake Mead and Lake Powell.
How much water does Lake Powell lose to absorption and evaporation?
600,000 acre feet per year.
How much water do US golf courses consume?
Two billion gallons every day.
A nation that destroys its _____ destroys itslef.
Soil. Teddy Roosevelt
Soil is part of earth’s __________.
Lithosphere. Earth’s crust and uppermost part of mantle.
Average depths of soil on continental surfaces.
What is the study of soil called?
What is soil mainly composed of?
weathered particles of rock and organic material
O > A > E > B > C > R
Organic layer of soil. Plant material. Not all soils have O horizon.
Organic material, dark color “Topsoil” most plants germinate here
Very fine soil and minerals
Materials from E & A have been washed down into and collect. “Subsoil”
Partially weathered or decayed, broken up bedrock, no nutrients
Rock. Solid Rock. Once exposed, weathering will eventually turn it into A or O.
Horizons O – C. (no rock horizon)
Which soil horizons are considered part of the soil?
O – B.
Five soil-forming factors
1. Parent Material 2. Climate 3. Time 4. Topography 5. Biology
Parent material in forming soil
The parent rock determines the quality of soil it become (after weathering). Ex. Quartz produces low calcium soil, grazing animals will have weak bones.
How does climate affect soil formation?
Rock breaks down more quickly in a warm humid dry environment than in a cool, dry, area. Tropical soils are very deep before you reach bedrock.
How does time affect soil formation?
New soils lack nutrients. Intermediate-aged soils are more fertile. Old soil is leached of nutrients. It can take 1,000 years to generate an inch of soil. Tropical areas – an inch every few decades.
How does topography affect soil formation?
Flat areas have deep soils, mountain sides have shallow soils* (slopes loses soils as it gradually migrates downward.)
How does biology affect soil formation?
Burrowing activities are beneficial, allowing oxygen and water down into the ground and bedrock
Color Texture Chemistry
Red-iron yellow-aluminum or sulphur dark brown-lots of organic material white-salt
Sand – largest soil – intermediate silt – smallest
Which soil types do not retain water?
Sand and silt. Clay retain water, and is very thick.
What is loam?
Has substantial amounts of sand, silt and clay. Best for agriculture because it is well-drained.