AP Human Georgraphy Unit 1 (HHS)

Anthropogenic
caused or produced by humans
Cartography
the production of maps, including construction of projections, design, compilation, drafting, and reproduction
Cultural ecology
the study of human adaption to social and physical environments
Cultural landscape
defined as the human-modified environment, including fields, houses, churches, highways, planted forests, and mines, as well as weeds and pollution.
Earth system science
seeks to integrate various fields of academic study to understand the Earth as a system
Environmental geography
the branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world
Eratosthenes
Greek mathematician and astronomer who estimated the circumference of the earth and the distances to the Moon and sun
Fertile Crescent
A crescent-shaped area of fertile land in the Middle East that extends from the eastern Mediterranean coast through the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to the Persian Gulf
Geographical Information Systems
any system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that are linked to location
Global Positioning System
a navigational system involving satellites and computers that can determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth
Idiographic
pertaining to or involving the study or explication of individual cases or events
George Perkins Marsh
considered by some to be America’s first environmentalist
Natural Landscape
A landscape that has not been modified by people or is dominated by natural processes and native plants and animals
Nomothetic
Of or relating to the study or discovery of general scientific laws
W.D. Pattison
said that geographers had exhibited broad enough consistency such that there were four traditions of geography
Physical geography
the study of physical features of the earth’s surface
Ptolemy
proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until the late Renaissance
Qualitative data
Data collected as descriptive information
Quantitative data
numerical data
Quantitative revolution
was geography’s attempt to redefine itself as a science
Region
An area or division, esp. part of a country or the world having definable characteristics but not always fixed boundaries
Regional geography
a study of regions throughout the world in order to understand or define the unique characteristics of a particular region
Remote sensing
The scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it
Carl Sauer
led the Berkeley school of cultural geography
Sense of place
essential character and spirit of an area
Spatial perspective
seeking to understand the changing spatial organization and material character of Earth’s surface
Sustainability
able to continue over a period of time
Systematic geography
concerned with individual physical and cultural elements of the earth
Thematic layers
a layer in which the graphical characteristics for each feature in the layer are determined by the values of response variables in an associated attribute data set
Absolute distance
Exact measurement of the physical space between two places
Relative distance
Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places
Absolute location
Position on earth using latitude and longitude
Relative location
Position on earth using nearby areas
Accessibility
how easy something can be reached
Azimuthal projection
1.A map projection in which a region of the earth is projected onto a plane tangential to the surface, typically at a pole or the equator
Breaking point
The moment of greatest strain at which someone or something gives way
Cartograms
A type of thematic map in which the areas of spatial features are distorted in proportion to the value of an attribute
Choropleth maps
a map that uses graded differences in shading or color or the placing of symbols inside defined areas on the map in order to indicate the average values of some property or quantity in those areas
Cognitive maps
A mental representation of one’s physical environment
Complementarity
a relation between two opposite states or principles that together exhaust the possibilities
Connectivity
the property of being connected or the degree to which something has connections
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
Coordinate system
a system that uses coordinates to establish position
Distance decay effect
The distance decay effect states that the interaction between two locales declines as the distance between them increases
Dot maps
A map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence of a feature, relying on a visual scatter to show spatial pattern
Expansion diffusion
the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area
Friction of distance
the larger the distance the more difficult it is, or less likely, for people to communicate
Fuller projection
a projection of a world map onto the surface of a polyhedron, which can then be unfolded to a net in many different ways and flattened to form a two-dimensional map which retains most of the relative proportional integrity of the globe map
Geoid
complex three-dimensional figure used as a basis for extremely precise surveys of positions on the surface of the Earth
Gravity model
a formula to calculate the likely interaction between two places given their distance apart, size and barriers (or lack of connectivity) between them
Hazards
A danger or risk
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
International Date Line
is a generally north-south imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, passing through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, where the date changes as a ship or airplane travels east or west across it
Intervening opportunities
The existence of a closer, less expensive opportunity for obtaining a good or service, or for a migration destination
Isolines
In line on a map connecting points at which the values within the data being mapped are equal
Large scale
Implies a map or photo showing a high amount of detail but a small area
Longitude
The angle of a location on the earth’s surface usually expressed in degrees east or west of the Greenwich Meridian
Latitude
the angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself
Law of retail gravitation
says that people in a larger city will travel farther to shop than people in a smaller city
Location charts
charts that show location
Map projections
different ways maps are projected
Mercator projection
a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder; areas appear greater the farther they are from the equator
Meridian
A circle of constant longitude passing through a given place on the earth’s surface and the terrestrial poles
Prime meridian
A planet’s meridian adopted as the zero of longitude
Parallel
A corresponding line on a map
Preference map
A map used for evaluating an opportunity
Proportional symbols map
symbols are scaled proportionally to their value and placed next to their corresponding geography
Reference map
A graphic display which shows the geographic distribution of many different attributes
Relocation diffusion
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Resolution
The degree of detail visible in a photographic or television image
Robinson projection
this representation reflects the spherical appearance of Earth
Scale
A rule determining the distances between such marks
Site
An area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed
Situation
The location and surroundings of a place
Small scale
cover large areas in less detail
Spatial diffusion
The distribution of ideas, products, culture, technology, innovation, languages and so on across space to other people
Thematic map
a type of map or chart especially designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area
Time-space convergence
The process, made possible by technological innovations in transportation and communication, by which distant places are brought closer together in terms of the time taken to travel
Topographic maps
is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief
Topological space
a map that accurately represents the spatial ordering
Transferability
the quality of being transferable or exchangeable
Visualization
form a mental picture of something that is invisible or abstract

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