AP Human Geography Exam (CHS)

Urban primacy
-When a country has a primary city that is three to four times larger than the other cities
Ernst Ravenstein

-British demographer who studied internal migration in England


-From these studies he created the Laws of Migration with some relevant today

Ravenstein’s Laws Of Migration

(Main Ones)

1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration

       ?Counterstreams occur for many factors like economics,      legal, or personal reasons ex. Jewish people returning to Israel after Diaspora

2. The majority of migrants move a short distance

       ? Most migration happens in a step by step pattern and tend to remain in the same country

       ? Intervening opportunities and intervening obstacles can cause a person’s plans to change

 3. Migrants who move longer distance tend to choose big-city destinations

       ? Ravenstein lived in the 1800s during Industrial Rev. and saw this first hand; cities tend to hold pull factor of jobs and better economic opportunities

 4. Urban migrants are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas

       ?True in Ravenstein’s time and in some developing nations, however the United States has experienced some counter-urbanization

 5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

       ?Easier to move oneself

6. Most long-distance migrants are male

Cold War Era

Period of East-West competition, tension and conflict short of full scale war that began after WWII and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in the 1990s, included also scientific competition like space race


Ex. United States (democracy) vs. Soviet Union (Communism)


Rapidly growing suburban city that has a population greater than 100,000, is not the largest city in their metropolitan area having double digit growth for several decades, often develop along interstate beltways



Ex. Temecula, Riverside, Escondido, etc.


Refugee(s) returning to their home country usually with the assistance of government or non-government organizations


Ex. Civil War in Rwanda calmed down in 1996 (Tutsi-Hutu Strife) with 500,000 Rwandans returning from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then called Zaire) and Tanzania

Graying Population

A population pyramid will show a higher number of older or elderly people in its projection than younger working-age people; the population pyramid is top heavy



Ex. What is starting to happen in Japan

Ester Boserup

-Principal critic of Malthusian theory who argued that overpopulation could be solved by increasing the number of subsistence farmers


Ex. Remeber Malthus thought the population (growing exponentially) would outgrow food supply (growing arthmetically)

The Sunbelt

-Growth of the economy and population in the “sunny regions” of the southwestern USA that developed as the dominance of the factory-based economy in the northeast decreased


Ex. Migration began after WWII and coincided with the USA Baby Boom (large increase in birthrates)

US Quota of 1921

-Immigration legislation that limited the number of people from one country and discriminated against Asians and favored European migrants



Ex. Today in the USA the largest claimed European ancestry is German, the largest Asian ancestry is Chinese


-People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside the home of their ethnicity



Ex. Jewish people living outside of Israel


-Sum of money sent by a migrant to his or her family back home



Ex. Migrants come from Turkey to work in Germany and send their earnings back home to Turkey


-A non-citizen of a country who has been granted asylum or seeks asylum

(asylum means protection)



Ex. Illegal immigrants asking the government for refugee/asylum; political prisoners; Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of Tibet has asylum in India because Chinese  control Tibet



-Faulty or inadequate adaptation


Ex. How people adapt or adjust to their surroundings can impact the environment negatively

Islands of Development

-Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure



Ex. Development of coastal cities in Western Africa during the slave trade


-Hearth: Middle East

-Language: Hebrew; Yiddish (Central/Eastern Europe)

-House of Worship: Synagogue or Temple

Major holidays are based on events in agricultural calendar of the religion’s homeland of Israel

-Some Holidays: Hanukkah (Festival of Lights)

Pesach( Passover) Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year)

Yom Kippur (“Day of Atonement)

-Some Sacred Sites: Wailing Wall (Western Wall in Jerusalem), Temple Mount (Jerusalem), Cave of Patriarchs (Jerusalem)

-Highest Populations in Israel followed by the USA

Backwash Effect

-Occurs when other regions suffer a drain of resources and talent due to agglomeration in another region



Ex. California’s Silicon Valley took most high-tech industry workers so other regions were left without their resources and talents and thus suffered the backwash effect

Footloose Industry

-Industry not bound by local constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants; production doesn’t change no matter where the goods are manufactured or processed


Ex. High tech industry and diamond industry 

High-Tech Corridor



-Place where technology and computer industries agglomerate



Ex. Silicon Valley in California

-Giving a price tag or value to something that was not previously perceived as having a money related value
Liberal Development Theories

-Theories that claim development is a process through which all countries can move



Ex. Rostow’s Modernization Model

New International Division of Labor

-Division of the manufacturing process across several countries, wherein different pieces of the product are made in different countries and then the pieces are assmebled yet again in another country


 –Ex. Manufacturing Zones ie. maquiladoras, special economic zones, free trade zones, etc.



NGO (Nongovernment Organization)

-Organization not run by the government but by a charity or private organization that supplies resources and money to local businesses and causes advancing economic and human development


 Ex. Save the Children, Doctors Without Borders, etc.

Structural Adjustment

-Stipulations that require the country receiving an international loan to make economic changes in order to use the loan


Ex. A LDC must make public goods privatized

Structuralist Theories

-Argue that less-developed countries are locked into a vicious cycle of entrenched underdevelopment by the global economic system that supports an unequal structure



Ex. Opposite of Liberal Development Theory

Weight Losing (Bulk Reducing) Industry

-Manufacturing processes that create a product lighter than the raw materials that went into making it; factory is located near the main resource location



Ex. Paper production (located near heavy lumber), steel and copper industries

Weight-Gaining (Bulk-Gaining) Industries

-Take raw materials and create a heavier final product; factory is located closer to consumer to minimize delivery costs


Ex. Beverage bottling


-Peripheral area beyond the ring highway tha contains squatter settlements



Ex. Included inthe Griffin-Ford Model of Latin American cities that was updated by Larry Ford

McGhee Model

-Developed by geographer TG McGhee, it shows similar land use patterns among medium-sized Southeast Asian cities



Ex. Found separate clusters surrounding port zones instead of a true central CBD

Disamenity Sector

 -Compact, closely clustered settlement usually a hamlet or a large village



Ex. Can also be the poorest part of a city controlled by a gang or war lord


-The countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa


-Economies as a group quickly moving towards complete industrialization & dominating in manufacturing and supplying natural resources

-Meet together at summits 

-Formed New Development Bank (NDB), to fund infrastructure and sustainable development projects both in their own countries as well as elsewhere

-By 2050 predicted to be some of the front runners in the total GDP (Gross Domestic Product) with China surpassing the USA

Cultural Landscape

Visible imprint of human activity



-Ex. Cape Cod style architecture in New England, Wailing Wall in Jerusalem, etc.

Natural Landscape

-Physical environment unaffected by human activity; it can be undisturbed wilderness or if it is disturbed it can return to its natural state; first conceptualized by Alexander Humboldt



-Ex. Amazon Rainforest, Grand Canyon, etc.

Sequent Occupance

-Notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape



-Ex. Santa Fe, NM imprinted by Native AmericansaColonial SpainaModern America

Absolute Distance

-Spatial separation between two points on the Earth’s surface measured by some accepted standard unit such as miles or kilometers (for widely separated locations), feet or meters (for more closely spaced points)



-Ex. There is 445 miles between Sydney and Melbourne (Australia)


-The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations; varies from place to place and can be measured

-Ex. NY City Subway system allows accessibility between different city neighborhoods

-The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network.
-Ex. Cell phone communication networks, email/internet, etc
Distance Decay

-The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction; usually represented in S curve


-Ex. Less Temecula shoppers go to North County Fair Mall in Escondido since the Promenade Mall opened in Temecula

Hierarchical/Cascade Diffusion

-An idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most concentrated places of people; urban hierarchy (ranking settlements (village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions) are usually involved; idea can proceed either upward or downward through a hierarchy; ideas from political leaders to other people in the community or ideas from an urban area then diffused to isolated rural areas

      -Ex. hip-hop music started in urban areas and spread to suburbs

Stimulus Diffusion

-Form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place



-Ex. Hamburgers in Hindu dominate India were adapted to garden burger varieties for McDonalds

Expansion Diffusion

Spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those involved grows continuously larger resulting in an expanding area of dissemination; snowball effect



-Ex. Spread of Islam through Africa

Relocation Diffusion

Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones


 Ex. Most common is spreading of ideas by a migrating population; for example German immigrants bringing tradition of Christmas tree to America

Physiological Density
Total number of people per unit of arable land
Population Distribution

Description of locations on the Earth’s surface where  

populations live


-Ex. Most people in the world live along seacoasts or near bodies of water

The Northern Hemisphere has a higher population than the Southern Hemisphere


Clustering of a phenomenon around a central location (clustered/agglomerated: close together spatially)


-Ex. There is a high concentration of favelas (slum communities) around the outer rim of San Paulo, Brazil


Amount of spread of a phenomenon over an area; how far things are spread out (dispersed/scattered: spread out)



-Ex. Due to problems of flooding and mountainous terrain Dolomites, Italy has many dispersed communities.


The design of a spatial distribution; geographical arrangements of objects in




-Ex. linear, random, centralized, nucleated, etc.

Grid System

-Key reference points are the North and South poles and the equator (natural), and prime meridian (agreed upon by cartographers)

-Meridians are arcs that connect the North and South poles (all equal in length)

-Parallels are circles drawn around the globe parallel to the equator; decrease in length as one nears the poles

– Equator is 0° and the North Pole is 90°N latitude

-Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles

-The world is divided into 24 standard time zones each of which represents 15° of longitude

-Ex. Seen on different types of maps

GIS (Geographic Information System)

A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes and displays geographic data; many advances in GIS have come from military applications; critiques of GIS: represents no real advances in geographers’ understanding of places and regions, increases level of surveillance by those who already possess power, fear it may help create a world in which people are not judged by who they are and what they do but more by where they live


-Ex. TOXMAP (National Library of Medicine), used by 911 operators, Google Earth, etc.

GPS (Global Positioning System)

Includes two dozen satellites placed in predetermined orbits, a series of tracking stations to monitor and control the satellites and receivers that compute positions, velocity, and time from the satellite signals


-Ex. Receivers in car can give you directions

Four Map Classes

 a) Conics: maps that place a cone over the Earth and keep distance intact but lose directional qualities

-Ex. Has a lot of distortion in the polar regions


b) Cylindrical: maps that show true direction but lose distance

-Ex. A Mercator map


c) Oval: maps that combine cylindrical and conic projections

-Ex. Molleweide projection


d) Planar: maps that show true direction and examine the Earth from one point, usually from a pole or polar direction

-Ex. Azimuthal map

Space-Time Compression

The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places


-Ex. Increased technology in travel makes it easier to fly from Boston to Paris

William Morris Davis

American geographer and geologist with studies also in meteorology;  helped to establish the Association of American Geographers; wrote articles and is listed as one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society


-Ex. He is know as the “father of American geography

Friction of Distance

The increase of time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance


-Ex. It will cost you more in time and gas money to go to concert in Las Vegas vs. San Diego

Environmental Determinism

The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development; also referred as environmentalism


-Ex. Many scholars dismiss this concept but an example could be that island nations have separate cultural development because of separation from mainland.


Geographic viewpoint- a response to determinism-that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development; nevertheless, possibilists view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits the possibilities of human choices


-Ex. Humans can make choices not  ruled by climate, physical features, etc


Defined by Manuel Castells as a set of interconnected nodes without a center


-Ex. Information networks, transportation networks, etc.

EPZ (Export Processing Zones)

Special manufacturing export zones that offer favorable tax, with regulatory and trade agreements to foreign companies

1. By early 2000, more than sixty countries had such zone

         2. Some argue that these zones exploit workers and only benefit foreign firms while some believe it provides necessary jobs for local residents

    3. Two examples include Mexico’s maquiladoras and China’s Special Economic Zones (SEZ)


Four Asian Tigers

-South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and former British colony Hong Kong were amongst the first Asian areas to embrace international trade; trade is considered complementary (meaning both sides benefit)

            1. South Korea: exports automobiles and electronics; high quality-university and primary education system; access to worldwide markets thanks to port cities like Pusan and Kwangju

            2. Taiwan: Who controls Taiwan? The United States recognizes Taiwan as independent due to their more capitalist economic system, while China claims Taiwan is a part of their country. Has grown in economic status due to exports with Kaohsiung handling the majority of the exports

            3. Singapore: example of an entrepôt; busiest port in the world; one of the cleanest and safest places in the world due to tough laws against crime (ex. littering is outlawed and comes with tough punishments); keeps many tourist away in fear of “lashings” and other harsh punishments, however international businesses like the safety; ports take in goods and re-export to places like Japan, Europe, the USA and other regions

            4. Hong Kong: Britain gave up its control of this port in the 1990s (Britain had gained Hong Kong after the Opium War in the late 1800s). Example of an entrepôt with its main industry being the re-export of industrial products especially those made in mainland China; one of the busiest ports in the world

China’s Special Economic Zones

Specific areas in China that allow tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations to attract foreign business and investment; situated along major port areas


1) 1980s establishment of first SEZs

2) 1984: China opened up fourteen coastal cities for overseas investment (ex. Shanghai, Tianjin, etc.

3) 1985: Opened up coastal areas including Yangtze and Pearl River Deltas

4) Established to encourage foreign investment

   5) No tax during first year; after year of profit “tax clock” begins but no tax second year while third and fourth year see ½ the tax rate

6) Has brought investment and revenue along with technological ideas to China

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

Baseline for time zones around the world, centered on the Prime Meridian (0* Longitude); sometimes called universal time


-There are 24 time zones at 15* of longitude (360* divided by 24 is equal to 15)

Five Themes of Geography

1. Location (Absolute an Relative)

2. Place (Physical and Human Characteristics)

3. Human Environment Interaction

4. Movement

5. Region (Formal (Uniform), Functional (Nodal),

Perceptual (Vernacular)

Internal physical and cultural characteristics of a place, such as terrain, and dominant religions, etc.


Feeling of collective identity based on a population’s politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
~Ex. Basque of Spain/France




The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct traditions

Geographers distinguish people according to important cultural characteristics, look at the distribution of cultural groups and offer reasons for the distribution

Comes from the Latin term cultus, which means to “care for”

What is mariculture?
Production and harvesting of fish and shellfish in fenced confinement areas along coasts and estuaries
Geographers study culture at what two angles? 


Geographers study this at two angles:

1) Some study what people care about (adore or worship) like the modern word cult
    Ex. beliefs, values, customs
2) Others study what people take care of (to nurse or look after) like the modern word cultivate
     Ex. Ways of earning a living, obtaining food, clothing, shelter

Culture Trait


A single element of normal practice in a culture
For example yamikah in the Jewish culture 

Culture Complex


A related set of cultural traits; combination of cultural traits
Ex. Raising cattle (used in different ways by many cultures); cooking utensils

Cultural Hearths


An area where cultural traits develop and from which cultural traits diffuse; can often be traced to a single place and time
Ex. Agricultural systems, creation of religions
Independent invention: trait with many hearths that developed independent of each other

What are some important areas of one’s culture? 


-Many of one’s important cultural values comes from language, religion and ethnicity
-Language is the cornerstone of culture and can be signs, sounds, gestures & marks that have meaning within a cultural group
-Religion is the principle system of attitudes, beliefs and practices through which people worship in an organized way

-Ethnicity encompasses a group’s language, religion and other culture values as well as physical traits
-A group possesses these cultural/physical traits as a product of its common traditions and heredity

Material vs. Nonmaterial Culture


~Material culture are things that people produce like food, clothing, shelter, art, etc.
~Nonmaterial culture are traditions, languages, religious beliefs, customs, etc.

What is the most important unit of social organization?


The most important unit of social organization is family

What is Neolocalism?


The seeking out of the regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world
Ex. Lindsborg, Kansas is called Little Sweden, U.S.A.

What groups settled in the Hudson Valley Hearth?


Dutch, Flemish, English, German, French Huguenot

Who settled in the Delaware Valley Hearth?


English, Scot-Irish, Swedish, German and Karelians (eastern Finns who introduced “backwoods” lifestyle, log-building design, self-sufficient economies and influenced frontier advancement)

What is a Service Based Economy?


Highly developed economies that focus on research & development, marketing, tourism, sales and telecommunication

Ex. The United States has a service- based economy

What is GNI?

(Gross National Income)


Total value of goods/services produced by a state per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationalists; formerly called gross national product



(Ethnic Geography)


Focuses on spatial distributions & interactions of ethnic groups (people sharing a distinctive culture) & of the cultural characteristics on which they are based; often associated with a region/territory

Word ethnicity is from the Greek “ethnos” meaning “people/nation” and refers to a group of people who share a common identity


1) Often contribute to cultural landscapes
2) Ethnicity is often connected to religion and language
3) Can be modified by migration…acculturation can help change identity i.e. now Irish-American
Ethnicity represents a national heritage while race refers to physical characteristics of a common genetic heritage
Ex. My race is Caucasian and one of my ethnic groups is Czech

Plural Society


A society that contains various cultural groups. Such groups often occupy “niches” in the broader social system, such that the groups do not interact with each other except in limited and often mutually exploitive ways

Before 1800, 80% of those coming to the New World from the Old World were African slaves. This is an example of what type of migration?
Forced Migration
Brain Drain

People wanting to escape communist influence began leaving Eastern Europe


Berlin Wall was built by the Communists to stop the “Brain Drain”

What is the ETM?

(Epidemiologic Transition Model)

Causes of death in each stage of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM)


Comes from epidemiology (science concerned with the incidence, distribution and control of disease that affect a large number of people)

What region has the highest major population concentration?
East Asia
What type of map do geographers often use to represent some type of population distribution?
Dot Map
In 1975, there was a major migration movement from Vietnam to these three countries
USA, Australia and Malaysia
External Identity vs. Internal Identity


External identity: used by individuals to express their cultural heritage, ethnicity or place of origin to people who do not share a common background

Internal identity: used by individuals to express their cultural heritage, ethnicity or place of origin to people who share their cultural/geographic background

Cultural Shatterbelt


Politically unstable region where different cultural elements come into contact and conflict

A dominate Muslim republic that in 1994 claimed the right of self-determination and attempted to break away from Russian control; lead to some bloody battles


Social differences between women and men rather than biological differences; what is female or male varies greatly over time/space
Ex. Different societies have different ideas about what jobs are appropriate for men and women
Indonesia factory workers are mostly women because factory owners think women are less likely to strike, join unions, and easier to exploit

Dowry Death


Disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) has lead to the death of the bride in some cases

Ex.In India bride burning

What is the Gender Gap?


Unbalance in sex ratio
Can refer to gender differences in society
Ex. Income disparity of males and females
More men in politics then women, etc.
Certain genders live longer than others (longevity gap) ~ can also be other factors like ethnicity

Gender-Related Development Index


Measures achievement in social and economic issues for men and women and takes note of inequality between the sexes

Ex. In 2007 Australia had the highest GDI ranking
Introduced from the UN 1995 Human Development Report

Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)


It examines the extent to which women and men are able to actively participate in economic and political life and take part in decision-making

Ex. In 2007 Sweden had the highest GEM ranking
Introduced from the UN 1995 Human Development Report

What is a universalizing religion?


Follows idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope
Seek to unite people all over the world
Followers often believe their religion represents universal truths & in some cases great efforts are taken in evangelism (spread belief system) and missionary work (travels to recruit new members)




Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of religion (or a religious branch, denomination or sect)
Contributes to many conflicts
Ex. Taliban in Afghanistan and its Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice: men beaten for shaving beards, women wearing nail polish had fingers cut off (interpreted Qu’ran their own way and were criticized by other Muslims)

Hierarchal Religion


Includes well-defined geographic structure and organizes things into local administrative units
Ex. Roman Catholicism:
Pope (head of church)à Bishops à Priestsà Parishioners

Interfaith vs. Intrafaith Boundaries


Interfaith boundaries: boundaries between the world’s major faiths
Ex. Christian-Muslim boundaries between countries in Africa
?Intrafaith boundaries: boundaries within a single major faith
Ex. Protestant vs. Catholics or Sunni vs. Shia

The Heartland Theory


Created by British geographer Halford Mackinder in 1904
Identified that agricultural land was a main commodity that states would be interested in
An effort to predict future conflict regions
The heartland stated the interior of Eurasia provided a likely base for world conquest (Eastern European Steppe) whoever controlled Eastern Europe commands the heartland, whoever controls the heartland commands the World Island and whoever controls the World Island controls the world

Shatterbelt Theory


Created by American geographer Saul Cohen in 1950
Modified Heartland to “Pivot Area”, Rimland to “Inner Crescent” with the rest of the world being the “Outer Crescent” (like the USA)
Shatterbelt: area caught between the conflicts of two others
True during Cold War Era ex. North Korea (USSR) and South Korea (USA) or Eastern Europe (USSR) and Western Europe (USA), etc.

Concentric Zone Model

(Burgess Model)

~Created in 1923 by sociologist E.W. Burgess

•First to explain the distribution of different social groups within urban areas

•This model shows that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings

•Size and width of rings varies from city to city but same type of rings appear in all cities in the same order but today in America the Zone of Better Residence would be larger (more people living in suburbs)

Zone 1: CBD a nonresidential activities are concentrated; aka downtown; highest density of commercial land use, expensive real estate

Zone 2: Zone of Transition a industry, manufacturing, wholesaling, factory zone; in many American/Canadian cities these areas have been deindustrialized-converted from industrial areas to festive landscape (parks, sports stadiums, convention centers, outdoor concert venues, etc.)

Zone 3: Zone of Independent Worker’s homes a working class, blue collar, inner city, lower-quality housing like tenements/public housing projects

Zone 4: Zone of Better Residence a professional/white collar, suburbs, newer homes, spacious, middle class

Zone 5: Commuter Zone a exurbs (area beyond suburbs), country estates, very low-density residential and they drive into the city for work (commute)




What is Globalization?


Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Can take away traditional practices from a society
Widens the gap between rich and poor
Ex. You can have McDonalds in China

What determines development?


Level of development can be created by:
1) Economic Factors
2) Social Factors
3) Demographics


(Human Development Index)


-Created by United Nations
-Countries’ level of development is a function of GDP (economic factor), literacy rate & eduction enrollment (two social factors) and life expectancy (one demographic factor)

Where is the HDI the highest and the lowest?


Highest ranking HDI states are mostly in the Nordic Nations of Europe

Highest HDI state is Norway .943 (2011)

-Lowest being in Sub-Saharan Africa

PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index)


-Created by Overseas Development Council
-Looks at three factors: infant mortality, life expectancy and literacy
-Three are averaged after being scored on a 0-100 scale with 0 being the poorest/worst

What in the economic structure is looked at when determining development?


Typical workers in LDCs receive $2 per hour, in MDCs it is $15 per hour
MDCs tend to have minimum wage laws
Types of jobs: people in MDCs have more jobs in tertiary, quaternary and quinary sectors, while LDCs have more in primary and secondary sectors

What is value added?


The gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy
-Workers in MDCs produce more with less effort because of access to technology, machinery, tools, etc…



Value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to create it
 -Higher in MDCs


A state’s power to control space/terrritory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations


Originated by German geographer Friedrich Ratzel

Cognitive Distance

Distance people perceive exists in a given situation


Ex. I think it is shorter to reach downtown San Diego by driving on the 15 & 163 freeways, but my sister thinks going vis the 5 freeway is faster

Remote Sensing

Method of collecting data or information through use of instruments distant from the area or object of study


-Ex. Satellites

Aeriel images from airplanes

The actual shape of the Earth which is round and oblate (slightly squashed)
Sense of Place

State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion remembering important events that occurred in that place by labeling a place with a certain character


Ex. My grandmother’s house always made me feel safe and loved

What is Tobler’s First Law of Geography?
“Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things”
Six Essential Elements of Geography

1) The World in Spatial Terms

2) Places and Regions

3) Physical Systems

4) Human Systems

5) Environment and Society

6) The Use of Geography

The Four Distinct Traditions of William D. Pattison?

1) Earth Science –> Physical Geography

2) Culture Environment –> Environmental Geography (Man-Land)

3) Locational–> Analysis of spatial data through map making (Spatial Tradition)

4) Area-Analysis–> Regional Geography

Perception of Place

Belief or understanding about a place developed through books, movies, stories, pictures, etc.


Ex. I have never been to Ireland but from the book I read it looks very green and the people very friendly.

Life Course
An individual’s life from birth to death as it plays itself out in social, physical and historical contexts
What does “the field” refer to in the study of Geography?

Research carried out on location; a piece of research undertaken outside a laboratory or place of learning


Ex. A census taker will record demographic information through a household questionaire

Istanbul was once Constantinople; this reference to a place’s name is known as….


(name given to a portion of the Earth’s surface)

Wilbur Zelinsky

One of America’s most prominent cultural geographers

In 1980 he defined and delimited the perceptual regions of the USA and Canada

Wrote The Cultural Geography of the United States

Equated migration to the demographic transition model (stages in the DTM determine the motives and distances of migration)

What are the Five Pillars of Faith/Islam?

 1)Recite the shahadah at least once.

2.2) Perform the salat (prayer) 5 times a day while facing the Kaaba in Mecca.
3) Donate regularly to charity via the zakat, a 2.5% charity tax, and through additional donations to the needy
4) Fast during the month of Ramadan
5) Make pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in life, if economically and physically possible (The Hajj)



This faith comes from Islam and is based on the teachings of Baha’u’llah.  It officially became a religion in 1873 AD/CE from Iran
§The Baha’i religion promotes gender and racial equality, freedom of speech, world peace, and a global government
§At some point in the future, Baha’i adherents believe there will be a world government



The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture
Ex. Often used to describe immigration adaptation to new places of residence

Innovation Adoption


Study of how, why and at what rate new technology spreads through a culture
Ex. Mali has 27 mobile phone subscribers for every 100 inhabitants but its western neighbor Mauritania is much higher at 65



Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood; also can mean neighborhoods with a long history of being ethnic enclaves like Chinatowns
Ex. Chapacua is a barrio of Colombia

Folk Song


Covers many music styles but usually refers to a narrative song using traditional melodies to speak on a particular topic; sometimes addresses social or political issues; often passed down within a community
Ex. She’ll Be Coming Around the Mountain (America), Zira, Zira (Africa), Lady of Knock (Ireland)



To endow with a privilege, especially the right to vote; also to set free, liberate or admit to citizenship
Ex. USA women gained the right to vote with the 19th Amendment



Process of adapting only certain customs that will be to ones advantage; the adoption of cultural traits such as language, clothing, food, etc. by one group under the influence of another
Ex. Many immigrants names are changed from their birth name to one that is more similar to native citizens in their new country of residence; my great-grandfather’s surname was von Grujbar and changed to Greybar when he came through Ellis Island

Ethnic Enclave


Communities of an ethnic group inside an area where another ethnic group predominates; these areas usually have a separate language, culture and economic system
Ex. Little Saigon (Westminster, CA), Lithuanian Plaza (Chicago. Il) etc.

What is desertification and its causes?

Human processes turn vegetative areas into desert-like landscapes


Causes include overgrazing, deforestation and soil salinization (too much salt in the soil poisons plants)

What USA states make up the USA Winter Wheat Belt and the USA Spring Belt?

Winter Wheat Belt: Kansas, Colorado and Oklahoma


Spring Wheat Belt: The Dakotas and Montana

Identify the concept:

Growing corn one season and wheat in another

Double cropping
Suitcase Farms

Farm in which no one lives, planting and harvesting are done by hired migratory crews


Ex. Practiced by some wheat farmers in Oklahoma

Sidewalk Farms
Individuals who live in urban areas and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock
What country is the largest producer of wheat?



10-15% is Spring Wheat (Heilongjiang Province produces most Spring Wheat)


Shandong highest % of all wheat production by province

Rectangular Survey System


a.k.a Public Land Survey, divides land into a series of rectangular parcels (checkerboard pattern across agricultural fields & is most used)
   – Used to parcel land west of theAppalachian Mts.



System in which eldest son (or in exceptional cases eldest daughter) inherits family lands

Nucleated Settlement 


Clustered together
-Work done by people and animals
-Found in Java, regions of Europe, etc.



-Round village shape
-Used in Eastern Africa for cattle corrals
-However layout was first used by Slavic farmers in Eastern Europe and modified later by Germanic settlers

Facts about Village Living


Despite urbanization, half the world’s people still live in villages and rural areas
In China alone about 800 million people reside in villages and hamlets
Three out of four residents of India live in villages
Agrarian villages remain one of the most common settlements on the Earth

Longlot Survey System


Land surveying used in Canadian Maritimes, Quebec, Texas & Louisiana where land is divided  into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads or canals

Town-Range Survey System


Part of the above system that was designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior

Metes and Bounds Survey System


System used to survey east of the Appalachian Mts; relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features like streams or trees
-Abandoned for Rectangular Survey because of its imprecise nature

Hamlet vs. Village


Hamlet: smallest organized rural cluster of houses and nonresidential facilities
Villages: settlements that are larger than hamlets but less complex than towns
-The two come in different patterns/configurations…

Dispersed Settlement Pattern

Dispersed individual farmhouses
found in Midwestern U.S.
land is intensively cultivated by machine rather than hand

What is agriculture?


Deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food, feed and fiber
-Not just food for humans, but animals also
-1/2 of staple grains grown in U.S. goes directly to livestock
-Eggs, milk and meat from raising livestock is a large part of U.S. agriculture

Unitary Government

System in which one central government holds most of the political power


Ex. Japan and Great Britain

Federal System

Relating to a union of states that recognizes a single central government but retain certain powers for themselves




System in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to the central government



Ex. Commonwealth of Independent States, United States having a federal gov. with other smaller states, Canada, Mexico, Russia, etc.

Commonwealth Countries

 Independent former parts of the British Empire; most still retain the British monarch as a head of state with the governor-general serving as the crown representative in the country; however the head of government is their own parliament and prime minister; states that still hold the British monarch as head of state include: Canada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, Guyana, Bahamas, etc.

Constitutional Monarchy

Monarch is mostly a figurehead, some can dismiss parliament, appoint judges/other officials, holds significant lands and estates, etc.


Ex. Great Britain, Belgium. The Netherlands, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Thailand, Luxembourg, Kuwait, Jordan, Bahrain, Monaco, Cambodia

Absolute Monarchy

Monarch is sole ruler


ex. Saudi Arabia, Brunei


Religious leaders hold senior positions of government


Ex. Iran

Means of production are controlled by private individual or corporations; also called market economy
Communist Economic System

Government controls means of production, determining what goods are made, how much workers will be paid and how much items will cost

Government owns, manages or controls the production, distribution and exchange of goods in such basic industries as transportation, communication and banking

A central authority controls all aspects of society, subordinating individual freedoms to state interests

FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization)

-Founded in Oct. 1945

-Mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity and to better the conditions of rural populations; alleviate poverty and hunger

-Largest autonomous agency within the U.N.

-Active in land and water development, plant and animal production, forestry, fisheries, economic/social policy, investment, nutrition, trade and dealings with food and agricultural emergencies

-Works to conserve natural resources while promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

World Health Organization (WHO)

-Founded in 1948; deals with physical and mental health

-Responsible for providing leadership on global health matters

-Help promote investment in health development, prevention/treatment of chronic diseases, focus on disadvantaged/vulnerable groups especially, foster health security, invest in research and work in issues ranging from aging to human health rights

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

-Created in 1946; work today in about 191 countries

-Help build world where children’s rights are realized

-Cornerstone of human progress in nurturing/caring for children

-Work to overcome obstacles that poverty, violence, disease and discrimination place in a child’s path

-Promote education (primary minimum), immunization, etc

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

Alliance of 26 countries from North America and Europe

-Treaty signed in 1949

-Safeguard the freedom and security of its members via political and military means

-Key roles in peace keeping and crisis management

-Countered by Warsaw Treaty Organization of Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries aka Warsaw Pact (dissolved with collapse of Soviet Union)

-Both pacts allowed for military bases in each countries)

EU (European Union)

-Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium; currency Euro

-Mission in 21st Century:

                -Provide peace, prosperity and stability for its people

                -Overcome continental division

                -Safety, economic balance and social development

-Combination of former organizations known as European Economic Community, Common Market and The European Community

-First began with six countries: Belgium, France, Italy, Lux., the Netherlands, and West Germany (1958) (The Inner Six)

-European Free Trade Association (EFTA) formed in 1960 to counter Inner Sixà aka the Outer Seven: UK, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Portugal

-States began to leave other organizations to join the Common Market

-Different countries have joined the EU at different times; in 2004 eight former communist Eastern European countries joined (Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) along with Cyprus and Malta

-Agencies: Council of Ministers, Commission, European Parliament and a Court of Justice

World Bank

(International Bank For Reconstruction and Development)

-Formally began in 1945

-Aims to “bridge divides (economics) and turn rich countries’ resources into poor countries growth”

-Helps support developing countries’ governments to build schools, health centers, fight disease, protect environment and provide water/electricity

-Not a bank in traditional sense; specialized agency of about 184 member states who decide how to finance the World Bank and how the money is spent

-Offer low interest loans, interest free credit and grants to developing countries

Colonial Cities

1) Cities established by colonizing empires as administrative centers usually over already existing native cities

2) Some African cities didn’t urbanize until colonial period like Nairobi, Kenya

3) In postcolonial independence many former colonies will keep European style architecture,  street system, language, etc. while others will change their toponyms, structure, language, etc.


Ex. Bombay, Madras & Calcutta during British colonization now Mumbai, Chennai & Kolkata (India)

What are some settlement patterns?

1) Clustered Rural Settlement: residential & farm structures of multiple households are arranged close together Ex. New England and parts of Europe


2) Dispersed Rural Settlement: significant distance between multiple households Ex. farm regions of America South, Midwest, & Great Plains


3) Circular settlements: circle of homes surrounding a central open space Ex. Medieval-era German and English towns, Sub-Saharan African tribal herding communities


4) Linear settlements: follow along a road or river/stream front, coast, etc. Ex. French long-lots

New Urbanism



1. Walkability:

-Most things within a 10-minute walk of home and work
-Pedestrian friendly street design (buildings close to street; porches, windows & doors; tree-lined streets; on street parking; hidden parking lots; garages in rear lane; narrow, slow speed streets)
-Pedestrian streets free of cars in special cases

2. Connectivity:
-Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic & eases walking
-A hierarchy of narrow streets, boulevards, and alleys
-High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking pleasurable

3. Mixed-Use & Diversity:
-A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site. Mixed-use within neighborhoods, within blocks, and within buildings
-Diversity of people – of ages, income levels, cultures, and races

4. Mixed Housing:
-A range of types, sizes and prices in closer proximity

5. Quality Architecture & Urban Design:
-Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort, and creating a sense of place; Special placement of civic uses and sites within community. Human scale architecture & beautiful surroundings nourish the human spirit

6. Traditional Neighborhood Structure:
-Discernable center and edge
-Public space at center
-Importance of quality public realm; public open space designed as civic art
-Contains a range of uses and densities within 10-minute walk
-Transect planning: Highest densities at town center; progressively less dense towards the edge. The transect is an analytical system that conceptualizes mutually reinforcing elements, creating a series of specific natural habitats and/or urban lifestyle settings. The transect integrates environmental methodology for habitat assessment with zoning methodology for community design. The professional boundary between the natural and man-made disappears, enabling environmentalists to assess the design of the human habitat and the urbanists to support the viability of nature. This urban-to-rural transect hierarchy has appropriate building and street types for each area along the continuum. 


7. Increased Density:
-More buildings, residences, shops, and services closer together for ease of walking, to enable a more efficient use of services and resources, and to create a more convenient, enjoyable place to live.
-New Urbanism design principles are applied at the full range of densities from small towns, to large cities

8. Smart Transportation:

-A network of high-quality trains connecting cities, towns, and neighborhoods together
-Pedestrian-friendly design that encourages a greater use of bicycles, rollerblades, scooters, and walking as daily transportation

9. Sustainability:
-Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations
-Eco-friendly technologies, respect for ecology and value of natural systems
-Energy efficiency
-Less use of finite fuels
-More local production
-More walking, less driving

10. Quality of Life:
-Taken together these add up to a high quality of life well worth living, and create places that enrich, uplift, and inspire the human spirit.

Sector Model (Hoyt)

Zone 1: CBDà Downtown

Zone 2: Transportation & Industryà Harbors, rail yards, riverfronts

Zone 3: Lower Class Residentialà Generally ethnic neighborhoods

Zone 4: Middle Class Residentialà Suburbs

Zone 5: High Class Residential à Elite (Wealthy)


•Created in 1939 by land economist Homer Hoyt

•Theorized that cities developed in sectors not rings; can show ethnic variations in the city

•Chicago was the model used for Concentric and Sector Model

Multiple-Nuclei Model

•Created in 1945 by geographers CD Harris & Edward Ullman

•This model shows the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities ~examples of these nodes include a port, neighborhood business center, university, airport, park, etc…

•Tends to apply to newer, faster growing cities

•More then one commercial center within the city landscape instead of just focused in the central city


Zone 1: CBD

Zone 2: Wholesale, light manufacturing

Zone 3: Low-Class Residential

Zone 4: Medium Class Residential

Zone 5: High-Class Residential

Zone 6: Heavy manufacturing

Zone 7: Outlying Business District

Zone 8: Residential Suburbs

Zone 9: Industrial Suburbs

John Borchert’s Model


John Borchert’s Model: (1967); recognized four epochs in the evolution of the American metropolis based on the impact of transportation & communication:

•    1) Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) – associated with low technology

•    2) Iron Horse Epoch (1830-70); steam-powered locomotive & spreading rails

•    3) Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920); full impact of Ind. Rev. (steel), hinterlands expand

•    4) Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-70); gas-powered internal combustion engine

•    5) High Technology Epoch (1970-today ); expansion of service & information industries (not part of Borchert’s original model but added on)

Peripheral Model (Galactic City Model)


•New Suburban CBD development often specializing in a certain industry

•Development of industrial parks on the urban periphery

•Many newly developed retail shops/malls, etc. are along transportation routes like highways/freeways instead of the old downtown CBD


Possible Suburban CBD Specializations:

Zone 1: Light Industrial Park

Zone 2: Research & Development Park

Zone 3: Air Transportation Hub

Zone 4: High-Tech and Computing Service

Zone 5: Retail Center or Mall



People who settle on land they don’t own; focus on idle land so squatters camp overnight with large groups of families also known as land invasion; they set up rudimentary homes and in some places it is illegal for the government to tear it down without court authority so squatters try to achieve legal right to the land (land tenure)

Squatters’ make shift houses are usually on the urban fringe (Ex. The favelas of Brazil or the barriadas of Lima, Peru)

Peak Land Value Intersection (PLVI)
Part of CBD that is the downtown intersection surrounding the most expensive pieces of real estate
Festival Landscape
American/Canadian cities have taken deindustrialization areas/run-down areas and converted spaces/buildings into parks, museums, sports parks, etc. (Ex. Inner Harbor of Baltimore, Skydome in Toronto, Centennial Olympic Park in Atlanta)
Historical Preservation

 Professional endeavor that seeks to fix, preserve, and protect buildings, places, objects, landscape etc. of historical significance; some states have historic districts that are from a certain era in the region’s history

Garden City Movement

Homes designed to look like European farm houses with front lawns and were originally built for the growing urban middle class of Chicago in Riverside, Illinois

Mixed Use Buidlings
Buildings that contain both housing and commercial space
Law of the Indies

Spanish government enacted these colonial legal codes


Ex. one dealt with the planning and layout of colonial cities

Lateral Commuting
occurs within the commuter zone of the city but both work and home are outside of the central city
Inner city or suburban residents move to rural areas to escape congestion, crime, pollution, etc. of the urban landscape
Citizen who left his/her home country to live abroad (in another country)
Antarctic Treaty of 1959

Created and thus suspended earlier claims to the land of Antarctica and opened up for scientific research only;

Expanded in 1991 for another 50 years and established new pollution controls and banned mining and oil exploration for 50 years

Australia had largest claim with Chile, Argentina and the UK having overlapping claims


A population with a single culture



Nation: England part of the state of the United Kingdom in the country of Great Britain

Nation: Han part of the state of the People’s Republic of China in the country of China         


A single culture group under a single government


Ex. Japan, Iceland, Portugal, Lesotho, etc.

Raison d’etre

French meaing “reason for being”

Why something exists or someone


Ex. National inconography exists as a way of unifying a people and/or state

Stateless Nation

People without a state


Ex. Kurds (Middle East), Basques (Spain/France), Hmong (Asia), Tibetans (China), Palestinians (Middle East), Tamils (Sri Lanka), etc.

Border Landscape

Representation of the environment around a border area


Ex. Along the USA/Mexico border you see Spanish style architecture; border states–> more Spanish spoken, in Mexico side closest to USA more English spoken

Primate City

A state’s leading city that dominates the urban hierarchy; is the political nucleus but also in many times more economically powerful than any other city in the state


Ex. Seoul (South Korea), Luanda (Angola), Sao Paulo (Brazil)


The transfer of certain powers from the state’s central government to separate political subdivisions within the state’s territory


Ex. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have separate status and own capital from England (asymmetric federalism)


Portion of a country adjacent to its boundaries and fronting another political unit

The frontier zone is a belt lying between two states or between settled and uninhabited or sparsely settled areas


From geographer Robert Sack

An individual or group attempt to identify and establish control over a clearly defined territory considered partially or wholly an exclusive domain;

Or the behavior associated with the defense of the home territory


Created in April 1999

3rd Northern Canadian Territory

Formed from Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (homeland to Inuit people who make up 85% of the area’s population and is the basis for the area’s culture)

Name means “Our Land” in Inuktitut

Is Canada’s largest territory but has the least amount of people (extremely cold temperatures)

Median-Line Principle

Approach to dividing and creating boundaries and the mid-point between two places


Ex. Great Lakes between Canada and USA use this principle

Immigrant States

States (usually core states) that attract large numbers of immigrants


Ex. USA, Australia, Western Europe

Thailand and Cambodia Border Dispute
Share a common border with recent violence in October 2008 and April 2009 over ownership of an ancient temple (Preah Vihear Temple) and its surrounding land
Hezbollah in Lebanon & Israel

Hezbollah (Muslim Guerilla Group) vs. Israeli military

Conflict over Muslims world dislike for Israel and loss of Palestinian lands

Ethiopia and Eritrea Border Conflict

Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993

With no formal fixed borders another conflict broke out in 1998

Some argue it is more of an issue of “pride” than land

Ended in 2000 with minor border change

Badme is the area at the heart of the conflict

Ethnic Provinces

A large territory, urban or rural dominated by or closely associated with a single ethnic group


Ex. French Canadians in Quebec

African-Americans in Southeast USA

Native Americans in Oklahoma, Southwest, Northern and Prairie Provinces

Hispanics along border states

Index of Residential Dissimilarity

Degree to which a distinctive group is segregated

Measured on a scale of 0-100

(0 no segregation to 100 completely segregated)


Division of a region or state into smaller units, usually along ethnic lines


Ex. Breaking up Yugoslavia into smaller independent states

Dependency Theory
According to this theory former colonies in South America, Africa and Asia have not been able to heal from imperial domination and are still dependent on their former European colonizers; many former colonies are in debt to former colonizers

Movement to reunite a nation’s homeland when part of it extends into another state’s borders


Ex. Hitler during WWII trying to reunite Germans who were living in parts of Czechoslovakia

International Sanctions

Punishments in the form of economic and or diplomatic limits or even isolation


Ex. Trade embargoes (not allowed to trade) with certain countries–> the USA and Cuba

New World Order

Multi-layered international situation or landscape that has existed since the end of the Cold War


Ex. No longer communism vs. anticommunism but could be US economy, EU, Chinese economy etc.


Movement of people, capital city, services, and government into the central city


Ex. It is the opposite of suburban sprawl

Festival Landscape

Landscape of cultural festivities; an area within an urban setting set aside for activities


Ex. Central Park used for concerts

Employment Structure

Graph showing how primary, secondary and tertiary, etc. are separated


Ex. In Ghana the majority of the employment structure is involved in primary activities

Bid Rent Theory

Explains that the price and demand for land increases closer to the CBD

Ex. Tokyo’s CBD is probably one of the Earth’s most expensive land areas $500,000,000 hectare because of land shortage with frequent earthquakes limiting height of buildings



What is the CBD?

(Central Business District)


Area of city where retail and office activities are clustered
Usually one of the oldest districts or origin of settlement

Doesn’t consist of a lot of land area but contains high % of infrastructure, buildings, retail, etc.


Attractive because of its accessibility (center is easiest to reach from the rest of the region & is the focal point of transportation network)

Urban Heat Island Effect


Problem of blocking sun and air movement due to tall buildings/structures

“Vertical Geography”
Building upward; example skyscrapers
What activities are often excluded from the CBD?


High costs prevent manufacturing and a lot of residents from CBD
Suitable land for manufacturing is often found in suburbs where there is more room for expansion
Old waterfront areas have been redeveloped as tourist attractions or convention centers with needs for more retail services

What are some characteristics of the European CBD?


Many European cities have central areas that are developed as historical sites and thus have not changed
Some limit car traffic & high rise buildings to keep original structures
Many centers include parks, churches, royal palaces (historical values)

Latin American CBD


Wealthier citizens tend to live in the center of the city with poorer residents living on the outskirts (Latin America)
Opposite of early American history where immigrants lived in city center to be close to jobs and through history developed into tenements and other poorer housing
Face lifts to poorer, old downtown areas are bringing higher end buildings/living

Rust Belt

Economic region in the NE quadrant of the United States, the Midwestern states and Pennsylvania

 The term gained wide use in the 1970s as the formerly dominant industrial region became noted for the abandonment of factories, unemployment, outmigration, the loss of electoral votes, and overall decline.


Since the 1960s, manufacturing cities throughout the Great Lakes region and in the Northeast have suffered a decline in population and economic strength as manufacturers relocated, primarily overseas, or more recently, to Mexico

 Ex. Flint, Michigan (GM left)


-Info Please definition



Clustered settlement with a CBD (Central Business District) but is smaller and less functionally complex than a city

Indigenous City


Remained remote from globalization’s influence & forms of western cities
Many indigenous cities escaped colonization but have been transformed today by immigration and globalization

Colonial City


Established by imperialistic empires as administrative centers, military posts & trade centers
Often placed over native cities, wiping out former practices, infrastructure & culture
Ex. Mexico City over Aztec’s Tenochtitlan, New Delhi (British) over Delhi

Primate City


Country’s largest city ranking atop the urban hierarchyà most expressive of the national culture and usually but not always the capital city
Defined in 1939 by geographer Mark Jefferson
Ex. Seoul Korea= 1/3 of the country’s urban population; over ¼ the entire population

Mega City


Characteristic of the developing world where high population growth/migration have caused them to explode since 1940s
Problems with pollution, poverty, & rapid pop. growth & other issues associated with overpopulation
Ex. Sao Paulo, Brazil

Edge City


Located on outskirts of large cities
Term introduced by U.S. journalist Joel Garreau to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in U.S. from CBDs towards new location of economic activity at urban edge
Characterized by extensive amounts of office/retail space
Ex. Irvine, Ca (outskirts of Los Angeles), Tyson Corner, Va (outskirts of Washington D.C.)

Fall Line City


Describe city that lay upstream on coastal rivers at the point where navigation is no longer possible by ocean going ships
Use break-of-bulk to switch from ship transportation to another form like train, truck, etc
USA Ex. Boston, Providence, Albany, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Fredericksburg, Richmond, Washington DC, etc…

Urban Morphology


Study of the physical form and structure of urban places
Archeologists study urban morphology and cultural landscape understand ancient cities

How did ancient cities develop?

In order for cities to develop, people had to switch from hunting-gathering to agriculture

Reason: people had to become more sedentary to tend fields which led to agricultural villages
Urban hearths parallel agricultural hearths

Two components allowed for early cities to develop:
1)Agricultural surplus: agricultural production in excess of that which the producer needs to survive where excess is sold for consumption by others
2)Social stratification: differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production and prestige

-Led to leadership class (decision makers and urban elite)
-Thought to be created to control crop surplus


Characteristics of Ancient Cities


Centers of religious, political, economic and educational practices
Chief marketplace and educational centers included important teachers & philosophers
Area for artisans & best craftsmen
Population numbers were maintained by agricultural production

Urbanization diffused from Mesopotamia with independent hearths occurring around Asia, Africa and Mesoamerica
First Urban Revolution: innovation of cities that occurred independently in five separate hearths

The Five Urban Hearths


1) Fertile Crescent à Mesopotamia
First place for cities developed around 3500 BCE
Great cities like Ur and Babylon

Located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Social inequality
a)Wealthy had palaces protected by walls with detailed elaborate decorations
b)Priest-Kings ruled cities, levied taxes, & demanded tribute from farmers’ harvests

Ordinary citizens lived along narrow streets in mud walled houses

 2) Nile River Valley

3200 BCE
Some argue not a hearth but a diffusion from Mesopotamia however evidence shows independent development
No walled city

Power was along Nile River due to need for irrigation systems


3) Indus River Valley   (South Asia)
2200 BCE
Cities of Harappa & Mohenjo Daro
Had a leadership class however all houses were the same with equal access to infrastructure

4) Huang He (Yellow River) & Wei (Yangtze River) Valleys 
1500 BCE in what today is China
Urban elite showed power by building elaborate structures
Cities planned around vertical structure in center with an inner wall around it

Within inner wall were palaces & temples

5) Mesoamerica
200 BCE
Ancient cities were religious centers
Urban elite increased power through priests, temples & shrines
Rulers seen as god-kings (divine authority)
MayansàTikal, Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Copan      Aztecs  àTenochtitlan

How did urbanization diffuse from ancient times?


Diffused from Mesopotamia
Modern cities we know today didn’t come about until several thousand years later from these ancient cities
Steady food supplies & sedentary lifestyle led to growth
People migrated diffusing ideas of agriculture & urbanization



Increase in the percentage & the number of people living in an urban settlement
Urbanized area: in the U.S. a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs

What % of the World is urbanized?

How is that divided according to three-tier structure?


What percentage of the world is urbanized?
?    How is that broken down according to the three-tier structure?
Core: 75%
   Semi-Periphery: 46%
Periphery: 28%



Transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents & tourists in terms of economic activity



Strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers & consumers to its facilities; a city’s “reach” into surrounding regions

Counter Urbanization


People moving away from the city to more rural settings
Concept is gaining momentum because of better transportation, early retirement, & better telecommunications that keep people linked to cities

Office Park


Property designed & developed specifically to attract corporate offices & provide them with all the facilities required to carry out business



An outlying, functionally uniform part of an urban area & is often (but not always) adjacent to the central city

Panregional Influence
Influence that extends beyond the city’s own region into the other centers of economic control


Movement of upper-middle class people from urban core areas to surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived & actual)
Involves transformation of land from rural to urban uses & affects a large # of people who can afford to move to larger more expensive homes
Restrictive Covenants


Deed restrictions that apply to a group of homes/lots in a specific development or subdivision
i.e. how many homes can be on the property, have to keep your yard maintained, can’t run a business from your home, can only paint a certain color, etc.



Neighborhoods: distinctive areas with distinctive characteristics; people who live in a particular district
Can be ethnic neighborhoods like Korea Town or Little Italy

Invasion and Succession


Process by which new immigrants to a city move to dominate & take over an area occupied by older immigrant groups 

Ex.  Puerto Ricans now dominate certain Harlem neighborhoods that use to be mostly Jewish

Racial Steering


In real estate it happens when you guide people towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on race; advise people of same racial background to live in same neighborhood
Some neighborhoods can be made up of slums (poor, densely populated urban areas) or tenements (run-down, low rent)

Planned Communities


Planned communities  are built on golf courses with community centers, or on artificial lakes, etc. 

Ad Hoc Committee

Committe created for a specific task that once the task is complete the committtee is disolved


Ex. Committee is formed to develop new park in the city but once the park is created the committee no longer meets



Practice by developer/real estate agents to encourage “white flight” by telling white property owners to sell their homes (usually cheaply) & leave a neighborhood because minority groups are moving in



Use of vacant land & property within a built up area for further construction or development; especially as part of a neighborhood preservation or limited growth program



Ring of prosperous communities beyond the suburbs that are commuter towns for an urban area
 Began to emerge in the 1970s when rampant crime and urban decay in U.S. cities were the primary push factors; more recently since house prices have skyrocketed, middle-class people who want a large yard or farm are pushed beyond suburban counties and into “exurb”

Density Gradient


Change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
Ex. people leaving the city centers and moving towards its outskirts



Similar to landscape, yet for a city (often seen in a city’s skyline)

Why is urbanization growing in LDCs?


Urbanization is growing in LDCs because of manufacturing/services jobs in cities & declining farming opportunities (urban jobs are by no means assured)

Postindustrial school of architecture and urban design that frowns on symmetry and balance and looks more toward diversity and individuality in expression
Urban vs. Rural


Social scientist Louis Wirth argued that the urban dweller follows a different way of life then a rural dweller (1930s)
Defined a city as a permanent settlement with three characteristics: large size, high population density, socially heterogeneous people

Large Size:
-smaller area residents know each other & interact more
-urban residents know small % of population, most relationships are contractual (you pay wages & you pay others for goods & services)

High density:
-Only way a large number of people can be supported in a small area is through specialization

Social Heterogeneity:
-Larger the settlement the more diversity
-Opportunities, yet people can feel isolated



U.S. Census Bureau has created a method of measurement for the functional area of city known as the MSA
MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area) includes:
1)An urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000
2)The county within which the city is located
Adjacent counties with a high population density & a large % of residents working in the central city’s county

Problems: Some MSAs include extensive land area that is not urban (Ex. Great Smokey Mts. National Park is partially located in Knoxville, Tenn.)
Census also designated small urban areas as Micropolitan Statistical Areas (urbanized area of between 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, & adjacent counties tied to the city)
Some MSAs may overlap & the Census Bureau may divide up these areas into their own districts/areas

Squatter Settlements


Area within a city in a less developed state in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent & make homemade structures



Unplanned slum developments on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings & shelters made of mostly scrap wood, iron & even pieces of cardboard

Urban Sprawl


Unrestricted growth in many U.S. urban areas of housing, commercial development & roads over large expanses of land with little concern for urban planning



A process of change in the use of a house from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment

Urban Banana


(crescent-shaped zone): urbanized zone that spread from India and the Far East (China & Japan) across the Islamic Empires, and into Europe; followed mostly along the silk and spice trade routes

Cottage Industry


Small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using own equipment; home-based business

Urban Revitalization


Replacing decayed inner-city areas usually with new construction of shopping, sporting arenas, cultural structures, etc… usually to lure young professionals back to the cities along with tourists

Inner City Decay


Areas of large urban regions that lose significant portions of their population as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs; area loses its tax base & become a center of poverty



Process where many inner-city areas become more dilapidated areas of poverty as affluent groups move out to the suburbs & immigrants and minority groups vie for scarce opportunities



Process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property/poverty within the boundaries

Street that has only one means of entering or exiting with a turnaround at the end of the street
Grid Street Pattern
Street pattern that is composed of regular rectangular blocks resulting in four-way intersections; common in older small towns and older sections of larger cities; replaced by curvilinear system which is curved street pattern with side streets from high traffic roads
Partion of India

When the British left India, the Hindus and Muslims could not agree on how to rule together

India was partioned creating East and West Pakistan (Hindus staying in India, Muslims moving to East/West Pakistan)

One of the greatest migrations of over 12 million people

West and East Pakistan were separated by over 1,000 miles of Indian territory

West Pakistan contained multiple ethnic groups but East Pakistan was mostly Bengali

Many in West Pakistan spoke Urdu which became the official language of the new country

East Pakistan was upset as most spoke Bengali

Economics and Politically issues also affected East and West Pakistan

East Pakistan paid more taxes while more than half the country’s budgest was spent in West Pakistan where the government headquarters was located

In the 1970s East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh (with India’s help)

Least Cost Theory


Also known as Weberian Analysis
Model which stated that the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
Developed theory in 20th century

Rimland Theory

Nicolas Spykman created

He changed the Heartland Theory

Defined the rimland to be all of Eurasia’s periphery, not its core of Russia and Central Asia

The rimland is the key to controlling the world island

Central Place Theory

Walter Christaller is credited with its creation

Holds that all market areas are focused on a central settlement that is place of exchange and service provisions

Thomas Malthus

Believed that global population was growing exponentially and the food supply arthmetically so there would be a point where the population would outgrow the food supply

Preventive checks on population: moral restraint (wait to have kids until you can afford them)–>slows the population growth to slow

Positive Checks: disease, war, famine, disaster (raised the death rate)

Launched modern followers Neo-Malthusians


World System Theory

Developed by sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world; is an example of a dependency perspective

1)     Three-tier structure: division of the world into the core, the periphery and the semi-periphery as a means to help explain the inter-connections between places in a global economy  (you have core/periphery notes from previous units)

2)     Three basic points of the world systems theory as Wallerstein defines:

·        The world economy has one market and a global division of labor

·        Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy

·        World economy has a three-tier structure:

            1) Core.: U.S., Canada, Japan, Australia, and France…

            2) Semi-Periphery: Argentina, China, Russia, and S. Africa…

            3) Periphery: Peru, Bolivia, Haiti, and Kenya…

Area serviced by a central place
Zone in Transition
Ring of land usually just around the CBD that is constantly in flux and run down because of successive waves of immigration that never allowed it to develop a permanent population base and attract development
Rostow’s Development Model

Created in the 1950s and is an example of a liberal development theory (theories that claim development is a process through which all countries can move)

? Rostow’s Model is a five-stage model of growth and advancement that all developed economies pass through:

Stage 1: The traditional society ~ a country that has not started a process of development, high % of population are involved in agriculture and fishing (primary economic activities) and high % of national wealth goes towards what Rostow calls “nonproductive activities” like religion and military

Stage 2: Preconditions for takeoff ~ elite groups initiate innovative economic activities that lead to investment in new technologies, infrastructure, transportation, water supplies, etc… these projects stimulate an increase in productivity

Stage 3: The takeoff ~ takeoff industries like textiles or food products help generate rapid growth and achieve technical advances to become productive

Stage 4: Drive to maturity ~ modern technology will diffuse beyond takeoff industries to other industries so they experience rapid growth comparable to takeoff industries; workers become more skilled and specialized

Stage 5: Age of Mass Consumption ~ economy shifts from production of heavy industries like steel to consumer goods like motor vehicles and refrigerators; technical knowledge and education levels are high; dominant service-based economy


?Rostow’s model was based on two factors:

     1) MDCs of Western Europe and Anglo-America had joined others in Southern/Eastern Europe and Japan in the process of development ~ if one state becomes developed why can’t others?

     2) Many LDCs contain an abundant supply of raw materials sought by manufacturers in MDCs => funds from sales of these resources could help promote development in the LDCs


?Criticism of Rostow:

            1) Based on Western Europe/Anglo-American development pattern and doesn’t account for roadblocks to development like political corruption, capital flight (factory earnings are sent back to banks in MDCs where it cannot be used to further local development in the LDC/NIC) or postcolonial dependency

            2) In the model states are seen as independent agents rather than one piece of an interlocking system of states

Derwent Whittlesey

Creator of the term sequent occupance (1929) Whittlesey also is known for mapping out 11 main agricultural regions plus a region where agriculture did not occur (1936)

-These 11 were linked with certain climate zones and divided between five that were important to LDCs and six important to MDCs:

1) Subsistence Farming: farming which uses simple technology, low capital investment, and in which the production of food for the individual farmer’s family is the priority


2) Shifting Cultivation: people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively long period

Dominates in Amazon (S. Amer.), Central/West Africa & Southeast Asia


Have two distinctive characteristics:

-Farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation & burning debris (slash-and burn agriculture)

-Grow crops on a cleared field for only a few years until soil nutrients are depleted then leave fallow for soil to recover

         Happens most in small villages with well-recognized boundaries separating neighboring villages

         Swidden: a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning; also called ladang, milpa, chena, kaingin


3) Pastoral Nomadism: based on herding of domesticated animals, primarily dry lands of North African and Asia

Ex. Bedouins of Saudi Arabia/ North Africa and the Masai of East Africa

         Rely on animals (milk, clothing, shelter) more than crops for survival

         Consume more grain rather than meat because size of herd is a measure of power and prestige and security during adverse environmental conditions

         Type of animal used depends on region:

         Camelsà North Africa, Middle East,

            Horseà Central Asia

            Goats and sheepà Multiple societies


4) Intensive Subsistence (Wet Rice Dominate): farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land; primarily the largest concentrations in East and South Asia

         Wet rice: rice planted on dry land in a nursery & then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth

         Small % of Asia’s agricultural land

         Dominate however in Southeast China, East India, and much of Southeast Asia

         Rice is most important crop to Asia region

         Several steps in growing rice:

1)      Farmer prepares field for planting using oxen plow

2)      Plowed land is flooded with water; too much water can harm; flooded field is called a sawah; Europeans usually call it a paddy (incorrect usage of Malay word for wet rice)

      3) Rice plants grow in submerged water and are harvested by hand

      4) Process continues…

            Chaff: husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing

            Threshed: to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it

            Winnowed: to remove shaft by allowing it to be blown away by the wind

            Hull: the outer covering of the seed

            Double cropping: harvesting twice a year from the same field


5) Intensive Subsistence (Crops other than rice dominate):

         Climate prevents some farmers from growing wet rice in parts of Asia

         Agriculture in interior of India & northeast China are devoted to crops other than wet rice: mostly human power with wheat and barley being the two most important crops; cash crops include tobacco, cotton, hemp and flax


6) Mixed Crops and Livestock: Common form of agriculture in the United States Midwest and Central Europe

         The most distinctive characteristic is that it’s the integration of crops & livestock; most of the crops are fed to the animals

         Mostly all land is devoted to farming, but ¾ of money is made from animal products

         Permits farmers to distribute work evenly throughout the year

         Livestock can be sold throughout the year but crops bring the most income

         Involves crop rotation when the farm is divided into many fields and each field is planted on a planned cycle

         Select corn mostly because there are higher yields per area

         Soybeans are second because it is used to make products consumed directly by people


7) Dairying: primarily in Northeastern USA, Wisconsin, California, Southeastern Canada, and Northwestern Europe

         Most important commercial agriculture practiced on farms

         Most of the world’s milk production was in the MDCs

         However India is now the world’s largest milk producer

         It’s the first ring outside of large cities because milk is highly perishable and during transportation it could go bad

         Milk shed is the ring outside a city from which milk can be supplied w/out spoiling

         We have refrigerated railcars and trucks now that help us ship milk more than 500 kilometers

         Some dairy farms specialize in butter, or cheese rather than milk

         Dairy farmers don’t sell directly to consumers but first sell milk to wholesalers

         Also sell milk to butter and cheese manufacturers

         Dairy farming can be expensive with labor being intensive and expensive to feed the cows in winter


8) Grain Farming: seed of cereal grass; primarily North-Central USA and Eastern Europe

         Grain is the seed of many different grasses like wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet and other grasses

         Crops on a grain farm are for consumption by humans

         Grain farms sell their output to manufacturers of food products like cereals and snack-food makers

         The most important crop on farms is wheat which is used to make bread flour, so it can be sold for a higher price

         Wheat also has more uses in human foods; it doesn’t spoil easily so it can be transported a long distance

         There is so much wheat grown, that it is used for international trade

         Wheat is the world’s largest exported crop

         U.S. and Canada account for more than half of the export of crops

         U.S. is the largest commercial producer of grain

         Commercial grain farms are in regions where it is too dry for mixed crops


9) Ranching: Western USA, Southeast South America, Central Asia, Southern Africa, and Australia

         Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area and is mostly practiced in MDCs where vegetation is sparse & soil is poor

         Hollywood films and television helped draw attention to this commercial farming

         Cattle ranching expanded in the U.S. because of the demand for beef

         Ranching declined in the 1880s, but ranchers created the “Code of the West” which discussed their rights as ranchers

         U.S. government sold land (that the ranchers owned) mostly to farmers to grow crops

         Ranchers used barbed wire…range wars

         Large cattle ranches were established on land too dry for crops

         New cattle breeds were brought from Europe, and at first they didn’t adapt to the old ranching system & then they thrived once there was fixed ranching

         Ranching generates lower income per an area of land, and ranches are most likely owned by meat processing companies then individuals

         Ranching has declined in the U.S. because growing crops became more profitable

         For survival ranchers tried new methods of breeding and sources of water and feed

         Ranching became a part of the meat processing industry


10) Mediterranean Agriculture: exists in lands that border Mediterranean Sea; also in California, Central Chile, parts of South Africa, & Southwestern Australia

         All Mediterranean agriculture borders the sea, west coast region of a continent, has areas with moisture, moderate winters, hot, dry summers, sea breezes and land is usually hilly

         Small % of income comes from animal products

         Usually goat & sheep are raised on coastal plains in the winter and on the hills in summer

         Most crops are grown for human consumption, rather than animal feed

         Horticulture is the growing of fruits, vegetables, flowers and tree crops that are the commercial base of farming

         Olives, grapes, dates, etc…

         The physical and cultural traits of a region decide which crop is grown where

         Lands nearest the Mediterranean Sea are world’s largest suppliers of olives which are an important source of cooking oil

         Half the land is devoted to cereals for the making of pasta and bread

         Much of California farmland is devoted to fruit and vegetable


11) Plantation Farming: form of commercial farming especially in Latin America, Africa & Asia

         Plantation: large farm that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale; most important are cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, cacao, and tobacco

         Usually import workers

         Major plantation crops:

      -Tea (India, China, Sri Lanka, Thailand)

      -Banana (Brazil, Costa Rica, Honduras)

      -Coffee (Ethiopia, Brazil, Kenya, Colombia, Hawaii (USA))

      -Rubber (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, Mexico)

      -Cacao {Chocolate} (Ghana, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria)

      -Cane Sugar (Cuba, Caribbean area, Brazil, Mexico, Philippines, India)





(Demographic Transition Model)

Model developed to predict and explain changes in population rates

As a country “transitions” or develops it goes through stages that refelct changes in birth, death and natural increase rates

Gravity Model

Used to estimate interaction and movement between two places


-Closer places attract more people than distant ones and larger places attract more people

Three Main Sources of Fish Farming

         Three Main Sources of Fish Farming

                  1. The Inland Catch (ponds, rivers and lakes)

                  2. Farm raised fish

                  3. Marine Catch (wild fish collected in seas & coastal waters)

Map that shows a pattern of a variable, such as population density or voting patterns by using various colors or degrees of shading
Equal Area Projection
Map that maintains area but distorts other features
Four Main Properties of a Map

Shape (geometric shape of objects)

Size (area)

Distance (represented distance between things)

Direction (degree of accuracy representing cardinal and intermediate direction)

Peripheral Model


Possible Suburban CBD Specializations:

Zone 1: Light Industrial Park

Zone 2: Research & Development Park

Zone 3: Air Transportation Hub

Zone 4: High-Tech and Computing Service

Zone 5: Retail Center or Mall


•New Suburban CBD development often specializing in a certain industry

•Development of industrial parks on the urban periphery

•Many newly developed retail shops/malls, etc. are along transportation routes like highways/freeways instead of the old downtown CBD

Cumulative Causation
Contributing factor to uneven development; occurs when money flows to areas of greatest profit, places where development has already been focused, rather than places of greatest need

Coined the term Geography; geo (Earth) with graphy (to write)= Earth writing

Head librarian at Alexandria

Created a pretty accurate computation of the Earth’s circumference

Based measurement on angle of sun at summer solstice and distance between the two Egyptian cities of Alexandria and Syene

Credited with dividing the world into meridians using known landmarks like Rhodes, and the Pillars of Hercules



Greek-Egyptian geographer and astronomer

Laid out principles still followed in modern cartography

Created atlas based on campaigns of Roman legions

Credited with terms latitude and longitude

Oriented maps by placing North on top and East on right


Zheng He

aka Ma He

Chinese explorere

Sailed from China to many places throughout the South Pacific, Indian Ocean, Taiwan, Persian Gulf and Africa in seven epic voyages from 1405 to 1433

Bernardus Varenius

German geographer

Created Geographia Generalis which stood for more than a century as the standard treatise on systematic geography

Omphalos Syndrome

Center of the world

Early cartographers placed the Earth as the center of the universe or placed objects significant to their culture in the center of their maps even if that wasn’t its true location


United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea


Code of maritime law approved by the UN in 1982 that authorizes territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles from shore and 200 nautical miles wide (exclusive economic zones)

Vernacular House
An indigenous style of building constructed of native materials and/or to traditional plan, without formal drawings
Tipping Point
The degree of neighborhood racial or ethnic mixing that induces the former majority group to move out rapidly
Victorian Housing Style


From late 1800s into early 1900s during the reign of Britain’s Queen Victoria; have round or octagonal turrets (like castle towers), mansard roof (outer edge of the roof faces outward at a high pitch)

Federalist or Georgian Housing Style


Late 1700/ early 1800s style of Anglo-America; often two/three story urban townhomes connected or large homes; windows and rooflines feature classical Greek and Roman design and stone carvings; equal windows and central doorways

Southern Housing Style


Many are traditional Georgian or an I-house (loose form of Georgian for average family) each surrounded by a veranda (shaded porch to cool exterior)
~Shotgun house-common to poor working class in the South, main element is the long, front to back central hallway that provides ventilation

New England Housing Style


1)Small one-story pitched roof style (Cape Cod) or long pitched roof in front with a low-angle roof in back (Salt Box)


-Demonstrated that the Earth was spherical by observing eclipses/shadows of Earth and Moon

 -Believed the closer you got to the Equator the warmer the temperature (based on people’s skin coloring)

-Looked at natural processes


-Influential to Greek travelers and philosophers

-Composed Geographia between 17 and 23 CE (AD) and  included 17 vol. complied of current world knowledge

 -Worked in Alexandria Library; work represented sum total of western cartographical knowledge before Christian Era                                             

 -Observed that humans were active elements in a human-environmental partnership                                       



-Arab geographer hired by King Roger II of Sicilyto collect all known geographical information and create an accurate representation of the world

 -Data collection took 15 years (Roger’s Book)

-World map was created on a silver disc (80in.) in diameter  and weighed 300 lbs. and weighed 300 lbs.

-Lived in the 1100s CE


Alexander von Humboldt

-German scholar argued to be one of the founders of modern Geography

-Lived from 1769-1859 CE/AD

-Naturalist and explorer

-Discovered connection between Orinoco and Amazon River Systems (South America) -Studied ocean currents, climate, Earth’s physical features

-Made connections between a region’s geography and its flora and fauna


What is polder?
Land created by the Dutch by draining water in an area
What is the adolescent fertility rate?
The number of births per 1,000 females ages 15-19
What was the basic industry of Pittsburgh during the early development of the city?

Incorporates core beliefs from two or more other religions

Ex. Druze: takes practices from Christianity and Islam
Sikhs: practices from Islam and Hinduism

Belief that nothing can be known about whether God exists
Biomass Fuel

Fuel that dervies from plant material and animal waste

Ex. Ethanol

A ratio of the number of items within a defined unit of area measures…

A) Dispersion

B) Direction

C) Pattern

D) Density

E) Diffusion


D) Density

Which of the following best describes the site of Manhattan?

A) A regional transportation hub for the northeastern USA

B) A midway point along an urban corridor stretching from Boston to Washington DC

C) An island bordered by the Hudson and East Rivers

D) An important center for international trade and commerce

E) An urban center located two hours northeast of Philadelphia by train

C) An island bordered by the Hudson and East Rivers

The place or area where a cultural practice originates is known as a…

A) Cosmos

B) Frontier

C) Edge

D) Path

E) Hearth

E) Hearth

Which of the following countries was the site of violent religious conflicts between Catholic and Protestant Christian groups throughout much of the 20th century?

A) Costa Rica

B) Canada

C) Ireland

D) Switzerland

E) Greece

C) Ireland

In which of the following countries is one most likely to encounter speakers whose native tongue belongs to the  Saharan language family?

A) Chad

B) Kuwait

C) Turkey

D) Mongolia

E) Cyprus

A) Chad

What is a social decline in religious adherence known as?

A) Partisanship

B) Fundamentalism

C) Syncretism

D) Mysticism

E) Secularism

E) Secularism

A political leader might seek to make his/her country conform to the traditional concept of a nation-state by…

A) Demanding representation in the United Nations

B) Openly encouraging civil disobedience

C) Instituting a bicameral system of legislature

D) Using the popular media to promote the idea of a national culture

E) Advocating a policy of multiculturalism

D) Using the popular media to promote the idea of a national culture

Shinto, a set of rituals and customs that are practiced in order to connect with ancient spirits, is a religious tradition that belongs to which of the following nations?

A) Japan

B) China

C) Nepal

D) Bolivia

E) Tibet

A) Japan

Migration in which people move to a series of increasingly more economically advantageous locations is referred to as…

A) Step Migration

B) Forced Migration

C) Cyclic Movement

D) Periodic Movement

E) Demographic Transition

A) Step Migration

A new fashion trend originating in New York City that diffuses to Los Angels, Paris and Tokyo before reaching rural areas of New York state would be an example of which of the following types of diffusion?

A) Contagious

B) Hierarchical

C) Uniform

D) Relocation

E) Stimulus

B) Hierarchical

All of the following are examples of iconic, secular landscape EXCEPT…

A) The Eiffel Tower

B) Yosemite Valley

C) The Lincoln Memorial

D) The Dome of the Rock

D) Dome of the Rock

Lesotho, an independent state whose territorial borders are entirely surrounded by the Republic of South Africa, is an example of a(n)…

A) Urban Hearth

B) Exclave

C) City-State

D) Enclave

E) Province


D) Enclave

Which of the following is an example of a second-world country?

A) Brazil

B) South Africa

C) Sierra Leone

D) Cuba

E) South Korea

D) Cuba

Which of the following groups of American cities is part of the Rust Belt?

A) Detroit, Buffalo, and Cleveland

B) San Jose, Palo Alto, and Cupertino

C) St. Louis, Little Rock, and Oklahoma City

D) Atlanta, Augusta, Knoxville

E) Albuquerque, Tucson, and Phonexi

A) Detroit, Buffalo, and Cleveland

In the core-periphery model of global economic patterns, all of Africa is included in the periphery EXCEPT…

A) Zimbabwe

B) Morocco

C) South Africa

D) Liberia

E) Kenya

C) South Africa

What type of land survey system divides up most of the US Midwest?

A) Metes and Bounds

B) Township and Range

C) Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

D) Long Lots

E) Nucleated

B) Township and Range

Which of the following regions is characterized as a zone of conflict between Muslim and Hindu ethnic groups?

A) Kurdistan

B) Chechnya

C) Kashmir

D) East Timor

E) The West Bank

C) Kashmir


(China is also involved)

All of the following belong to the Indo-European language family EXCEPT…

A) Hindi

B) Bengali

C) Farsi

D) Mandarin

E) Dutch

D) Mandarin

The religious doctrine of ahimsa which discourages violence against other living beings, is best associated with which of the following regions?

A) North Africa

B) Western Europe

C) Arabian Peninsula

D) Andes Mountains

E) Indian Subcontinent

E) Indian Subcontinent

A factor that persuades an immigrant to settle en route to his or her planned destinations is known as…

A) Interfering Factor

B) Intervening Opportunity

C) Interruption

D) Interceding Factor

E) Disrupting Opportunity

B) Intervening Opportunity

Baby booms are generally assoicated with…

A) Periods of economic hardship

B) Increased education of women

C) Periods of economic prosperity

D) Increased number of women in the workforce

E) Times of War

C) Periods of economic prosperity

China’s one-child policy is an example of what theory?

A) Maximum Population Theory

B) Ideal Population Theory

C) Optimum Population Theory

D) Select Population Theory

E) Population Theory

C) Optimum Population Theory

Which of the following is the best example of a monolingual state?

A) Ethiopia

B) France

C) The Philippines

D) Papua New Guinea

E) Denmark

E) Denmark

The outsourcing or restructuring of labor from more developed countries to less developed countries to take advantage of cheaper labor costs is described by what term?

A) The New International Division of Labor

B) The Core-Periphery Relationship

C) Economic Factors of Development

D) Standards of Industrial Development

E) Inadequate Debt Financing of Employment

A) The New International Division of Labor

Tertiary economies are focused in what type of economic activity?

A) Primary industries

B) Secondary industries

C) Management industries

D) Farming

E) Service-based economies

E) Service-based economies

Bananas, sugarcane, and coffee are what type of crops?

A) Plantation Crops

B) Market-Gardening Crops

C) Slash-And-Burn Crops

D) Animal Products

E) Subsistence Crops

A) Plantation Crops

Which process has allowed much of Asia’s population to be fed?

A) Plantation agriculture

B) Double cropping

C) Soil tilling

D) Desertification

E) Terraced irrigation

B) Double Cropping

Which of the following areas is an exclave?

A) Hawaii, United States

B) Singapore

C) Kaliningrad, Russia

D) South Africa

E) Italy

C) Kaliningrad, Russia

Pork production and hog raising are almost nonexistent in the Islamic World. What best explains this lack of pork production?

A) Ethnic taboos do not allow Muslims to eat pork

B) Religious guidelines do not allow Muslims to eat pork

C) The pork is not a customary food perference in the Islamic diet

D) Muslim’s dietary preferences tend more towards cattle production

E) The Islamic religion exalts vegans as having religious purity

B) Religious guidelines do not allow Muslims to eat pork

Which is the first stage in Rostow’s development model of economic development?

A) The traditional society

B) The preconditions to takeoff

C) The drive to maturity

D) The age of mass consumption

E) The takeoff

A) The traditional society

Which of the following is NOT a centripetal force?

A) National anthem

B) Homogeneous population

C) Monolingual society

D) National education system

E) Religious diversity

E) Religious diversity

In which of the following countries is one most likely to find speakers whose native language belongs to the Uralic language family?

A) Libya

B) Cambodia

C) Kazakhstan

D) Portugal

E) Germany

C) Kazakhstan

Which fo the following sacred places is most closely associated with animism?

A) Hagia Sophia

B) Ayers Rock

C) Sistine Chapel

D) Mecca

E) The Western Wall

B) Ayers Rock

A conflict over the sharing of the water in the Kaveri River between the south Indian states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu would best be classified as…

A) An allocational boundary dispute

B) A locational boundary dispute

C) An operational boundary dispute

D) A definitional boundary dispute

E) A genetic boundary dispute

A) An allocational boundary dispute

A suitcase farm is defined as…

A) A commercial farm where no one lives and that is farmed by migratory workers

B) Temporarily cultivated land that is abandoned after several seasons

C) Land to and from which seasonal pasture animals are moved throughout the year

D) A farm where crops are grown for human consumption rather than for animals

E) Commercial production of fruit from orchards

A) A commercial farm where no one lives and that is farmed by migratory workers

To reduce the risk of depleting the soil of nutrients, a farmer decides to plant legumes in a field that previously grew corn. This practice is called…

A) Crop rotation

B) Companion cropping

C) Succession cropping

D) Double cropping

E) No-till planting

A) Crop rotation
A minaret is an architectural feature common to places of worship in what religion?

Which of the following toponyms best belongs in a formal culture region defined by common traits of Catholicism and Spanish language?

A) Dar es Salaam

B) Saint Paul

C) San Jose

D) Tel Aviv

E) Fauske

C) San Jose

Which of the following is not one of Ravenstein’s migration laws?

A) Most migration is rural to urban

B) Migrants traveling long distances will likely settle in a big city

C) People in rural areas are more migratory than city dwellers

D) Most international migrants are young women

E) Most migration is step migration

D) Most international migrants are young women

In 1997, Pakistan and the United Kingdom experienced the two-way nature of migration. Which of the following is true regarding that migration pattern?

A) The migration in both ways was equal

B) More people migrated from Pakistan to the UK

C) More people migrated from the UK to Pakistan

D) The migration to the UK was countermigration

E) The migration to Pakistan was the dominant migration

B) More people migrated from Pakistan to the UK

An example of a country with a population pyramid that has a large base is…

A) Japan

B) Germany

C) Nigeria

D) United States

E) Russia

C) Nigeria

Map projection that preserve and accurately represent the shape of the geographical areas and features are said to be…

A) Conformal

B) Equidistant

C) Equal-Area

D) Azimuthal

E) Useless

A) Conformal
The cardinal points north, east, south, and west correspond to what type of direction?
Absolute direction

Which of the following is true regarding the growing season?

A) The Northern Hemisphere has a longer growing season than the Southern Hemisphere

B) Areas near the poles have longer growing seaons than regions near the equator

C) The Southern Hemisphere has a longer growing season than the Northern Hemisphere

D) Lands near the equator have longer growing seasons than at the poles

E) Growing seasons are the same around the world

D) Lands near the equator have longer growing seasons than at the poles

Which of the following pairs of states possess territory along the Strait of Gibraltar?

A) Russia and China

B) Tunisia and Italy

C) Spain and Morocco

D) Australia and New Zealand

E) Chile and Argentina

C) Spain and Morocco

Which of the following examples best illustrates the concept of cognitive distance?

A) Distance expressed in terms of the amount of money it costs to travel from one place to another

B) Distance measured in terms of miles or kilometers

C) Distance measured in terms of minutes or hours

D) Distance expressed in terms of perceived amount of space separating one place from another

E) Distance expressed in terms of how far the average person can walk in one day


D) Distance expressed in terms of perceived amount of space separating one place from another

All of the following accurately reflect the attitude of Thomas Malthus towards the poor EXCEPT:

A) Wealthy people giving money to the poor would deprive the world of culture and refinement

B) Preventive checks were not enough to control the population of the poor

C) Better health care and sanitation should not be provided to poor people

D) A surplus population of poor people was necessary to provide a stable workforce

E) Left unchecked the population of poor people would be unltimately limited by famine

D) A surplus population of poor people was necessary to provide a stable workforce

To compensate for growing populations, undeveloped countries have tried to raise crop yields by…

A) Decreasing irrigation

B) Using manure instead of chemical fertilizers

C) Planting genetically modified plants

D) Finding new land to farm

E) Reducing their dependency on pesticides

C) Planting genetically modified plants
What is known as the seasonal migration of livestock between lowlands and mountains?

What does the gravity model predict?

A) The number of people a city can support with available resources

B) The rate at which intercontinental migration occurs

C) The movement of people, goods and ideas between two locations based on size and distance

D) Periods of population explosion in a certain geographic region

E) The physiological density of a country

C) The movement of people, goods and ideas between two locations based on size and distance

Where can most of the world’s unitary states be found?

A) North America and South America

B) Africa and Asia

C) Australia and Europe

D) Antarctica and North America

E) Australia and South America

B) Africa and Asia

Some countries, such as India and Nepal, have treaties that allow citizens to live, work and travel freely in both lands, a practice typically leads to the development of…

A) Opposing national identities

B) Fluid national identiities

C) Rigid national identities

D) Postindustrial national identities

E) Communist national identities

B) Fluid national identiities

Which of the following phenomena most directly illustrates the concept of cultural convergence?

A) Linguistic drift

B) Ethnic separatism

C) Globalization

D) Gerrymandering

E) Religious Fundalmentalism

C) Globalization

The principle of distance decay describes…


A) A positive correlation between distance and degree of relation

B) A neutral correlation between distance and degree of relation

C) A negative correlation between distance and degree of relation

D) An uncertain correlation between distance adn degree of relation

E) No correlation between distance and degree of relation

C) A negative correlation between distance and degree of relation

Economic and/or political associations that are comprised of multiple, autonomous member states that cooperate to achieve a common purpose are known as…

A) Transnational corporations

B) Supranational organizations

C) Multiethnic societies

D) Nationalism

E) Nongovernmental organizations

B) Supranational organizations

During the process of mapmaking, in which the three-dimensional surface of the earth is projected onto a flat, two-dimensional surface, all of the following attributes can become distorted EXCEPT…


A) Shape

B) Area

C) Distance

D) Direction

E) Relative location

E) Relative Location

Which of the following terms refers to a ratio between distances portrayed on a map and actual distances on the earth’s surface that correspond to this map?


A) Chart

B) Scale

C) Contour

D) Grid

E) Projection

B) Scale

Which of the following is a consequence of zero population growth?


A) Higher rates of malnutrition

B) Reduced strain on available resources

C) A larger workforce

D) Increased fertility rates

E) Decreased progress toward development in least developed countries

B) Reduced strain on available resources

Influenza is an example of which type of diffusion?


A) Network

B) Relocation

C) Hierarchical

D) Contagious

E) Mixed

D) Contagious

Which of the following describes how winter wheat is planted and harvested?


A) Planted in the fall, harvested in the winter

B) Planted in the spring, harvested in the summer

C) Planted in the winter, harvested in the spring

D) Planted in the spring, harvested in the winter

E) Planted in the fall, harvested in the spring

E) Planted in the fall, harvested in the spring

Which of the following terms best describes the geographical boundary of one particular linguistic feature?


A) Language border

B) Toponym

C) Choropleth interval

D) Linguistic hearth

E) Isogloss

E) Isogloss

Historically, cultural diffusion patterns in the United States have tended to flow in which general direction?


A) East to west

B) West to east

C) North to south

D) South to north

E) Northwest to southeast

A) East to west

Which of the following best describes the general direction that the population center of the United States has moved since 1790?


A) North and east

B) South

C) West and south

D) North and west

E) South and east

C) West and south

All of the following are potential pull factors for immigrants EXCEPT?


A) Access to health-care services

B) The high cost of land

C) Potential for higher-paying employment

D) Access to electricity and utilities

E) Entertainment options like television and sports

B) The high cost of land

Today, city planners work to create healthy urban environments by designing neighborhoods and streets that allow residents to…


A) Obtain organic foods

B) Engage in regular exercise

C) Drive without obstacles

D) Easily access health clinics of all sizes

E) Commute quickly to schools and workplace

B) Engage in regular exercise

In a futuristic version of Hoyt’s sector model, low-income populations would be most likely to live close to…

A) Industrial canals

B) High-speed rail lines

C) Green spaces and parks

D) Pedistrian walkways

E) Wind farms

B) High-speed rail lines

Which of the following are ways countries use ecotourism?

I. To offset destruction of natural habitats

II. To educate  the populace about environmental conservation

III. To offer their people a way to earn money without engaging in slash-and-burn agriculture

IV. To prevent the displacement to indigenous cultures and peoples

V. To attract a younger more eco-conscious tourism clientele

I. To offset destruction of natural habitats

II. To educate  the populace about environmental conservation

III. To offer their people a way to earn money without engaging in slash-and-burn agriculture

V. To attract a younger more eco-conscious tourism clientele

All of the following are true of maquiladoras EXCEPT…

A) The North American Free Trade Agreement spurred the growth of maquiladoras in Mexico

B) Globalization has increased competition for maquiladoras in Mexico

C) Because of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquiladoras are not subject to any Mexican taxes

D) U.S. firms take advantage of more lenient Mexican labor laws and cheaper wages by using the maquiladoras

E) China’s special economic areas are a big threat to the maquiladoras because they provide cheaper labor in some cases

C) Because of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquiladoras are not subject to any Mexican taxes

A refugee is defined as a person…

A) Who willingly left his/her homeland for better opportunities in another country

B) Who illegally resides in a country other than his/her homeland

C) Who works outside his/her home country

D) Who was forced to leave his/her homeland due to war or violence

E) Who was deported from a country back to his/her homeland

D) Who was forced to leave his/her homeland due to war or violence

In a developed country, all of the following are likely to lower the rate of natural increase (RNI) of the population EXCEPT…

A) Women gaining political and economic rights

B) Very high divorce rates

C) A proliferation of single-parent, single child families

D) A high rate of immigration

E) A high number of DINK (double-income, no kids) households

D) A high rate of immigration

All of the following are examples of forced migration EXCEPT…

A) The Trail of Tears in the early 19th century

B) The Atlantic Slave Trade

C) The California Gold Rush in the mid 19th century

D) The Irish Potato Famine from 1846-1850

E) The Japanese internment camps during World War II

C) The California Gold Rush in the mid 19th century

Which of the following is true regarding emigration?

A) Emigration results in an influx of talented people in underdeveloped countries

B) Emigration reduces the pressure on land in overpopulated areas

C) Emigration increases unemployment rates in underdeveloped countries

D) Emigration can speed up development in underpopulated areas

E) Emigration can increase culture diversity

B) Emigration reduces the pressure on land in overpopulated areas

Which of the following concepts refers to the spatial arrangement of items or features within a given area?

A) Distribution

B) Direction

C) Accessibility

D) Trajectory

E) Scale

A) Distribution

Which of the following pairs of states possess territory along the Strait of Gibraltar?

A) Russia and China

B) Tunisia and Italy

C) Spain and Morocco

D) Australia and New Zealand

E) Chile and Argentina

C) Spain and Morocco

A greenbelt policy encourages a city to curb the amount of construction on a city’s edges to encourage growth in…

A) The city’s suburbs

B) The city’s industrial zones

C) The city’s transportation networks

D) The city’s waterfront district

E) The city’s core

E) The city’s core

The toponyms Leinskoye and Stalinsk are most likely to be found in which of the following countries?

A) Russia

B) Armenia

C) Cuba

D) Uzbekistan

E) Malaysia

A) Russia

Some geographers argue that a nation in political turmoil can become a democracy more quickly if foreign governments use their military power to influence the nation’s affaris. They often cite as a primary example…

A) China following the Boxer Rebellion

B) Germany following World War II

C) Ireland following the Troubles

D) Pakistan following the partician of India

E) Haiti following World War I

B) Germany following World War II

Which of the following best characterizes the Green Revolution?

A) The Green Revolution relied soley on technology to increase crop yields in the years following World War II

B) The Green Revolution resulted in increased biodiversity worldwide, especially in places where monocropping and high-yield varietals were prevalent

C) The Green Revolution was able to increase crop yields and food production in many locations throughout the world, but its impact on the environment, geopolitics and the world economy has yet to be fully understood

D) There have been no major famines since the agricultural practices of the Green Revolution took hold in the 1960s

E) Much more land was put under cultivation during the Green Revolution, and this rather than the development of high-yield varietals, was responsible for the increase in food production from 1960 ton1985

C) The Green Revolution was able to increase crop yields and food production in many locations throughout the world, but its impact on the environment, geopolitics and the world economy has yet to be fully understood

Since the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) collapsed, the majority of smaller nations that the USSR formerly aided have…

A) Completely eliminated their sovereign powers

B) Assigned their sovereign powers to other countries

C) Strengthened their sovereign powers

D) Reduced their number of sovereign powers

E) Failed to develop any sovereign powers

C) Strengthened their sovereign powers

The Sunbelt and New England are two examples of which kind of culture region?

A) Functional

B) Formal

C) Vernacular

D) Municipal

E) Transnational

C) Vernacular

An immigrant who selectively adopts certain customs of the dominant society in order to advance socioeconomically, while still retaining much of his/her customs, practices and beliefs best illustrates the concept of…

A) Acculturation

B) Maladaptive Behavior

C) Assimilation

D) Ethnocentrism

E) All of the above

A) Acculturation

Which of the following crops was domesticated in northern Africa approximately 1,200 years ago?

A) Pineapples

B) Coffee

C) Squash

D) Corn

E) Millet

B) Coffee

Which of the following is true about agriculture in China?

A) The government dictates the types and quantities of crops grown

B) China has the highest sanitary and phytosanitary standards in Asia

C) Both rice and wheat are grown throughout China

D) Organic farming accounts for most of the farming in China

E) China is the largest exporter of agricultural goods in the world

A) The government dictates the types and quantities of crops grown

After World War II, the governments of many European nations countered urban housing shortages by buidling…

A) Public housing in rural areas

B) Private residential towers within the city

C) Subsidized housing blocks within the city

D) Efficient urban highways

E) Private residental housing in commuter zones

C) Subsidized housing blocks within the city

Until recently, many transportation plans for urban areas failed to create space for environmentally friendly corridors for transportation such as…


A) Highways and side streets

B) Overpasses for private bus lines

C) Waterways for freight ships

D) Pedestrian walkways and bicycle paths

E) Airspace for helicopters and private planes

D) Pedestrian walkways and bicycle paths

An excellent example of a primate city that serves as the focus of a country and its culture is…

A) Copenhagen, Denmark

B) Marseilles, France

C) Calgary, Canada

D) Seattle, United States of America

E) Tijuana, Mexico

A) Copenhagen, Denmark

In the city of Jerusalem, the concentric zone model can be modified to account for the presence of at least two central business districts for…


A) At least two different residential suburbs

B) At least two similar homeless populations

C) At least two different ethnic and religious populations

D) At least two different government adminstrations

E) At least two similar banking centers

C) At least two different ethnic and religious populations

Many of today’s emerging megacities, such as Rio De Janeiro and Guangzhou, are actually not one distinct city but…

A) A collection of highly populated religious centers

B) Multiple cities that have merged

C) Academic institutions located close to suburbs and edge cities

D) A collection of company towns set up by major industries

E) A ring of commuter towns

B) Multiple cities that have merged

Which of the following is a product made by a bulk-reducing industry?

A) Gasoline

B) Milk

C) Automobiles

D) Homes

E) Textiles

A) Gasoline

Which of the following machines is used to cut grain that is standing in the fields?

A) Tillage

B) Reaper

C) Thresher

D) Harrow

E) Transplanter

B) Reaper

The emergence of which of the following allowed people to settle in one location permanently rather than migrating seasonally?

A) Subsistence farming

B) Multicropping

C) Monoculture

D) Plantation agriculture

E) Commercial farming

A) Subsistence farming

What is the process called of splitting existing plants into two and replanting both parts to propogate crops?

A) Seed agriculture

B) Aquaculture

C) Vegetative planting

D) Subsistence agriculture

E) Plantation agriculture

C) Vegetative planting

What is the primary reason for establishing proruption in a boundary?


A) To access more raw materials

B) To create hostility among the neighbors

C) To control different nationalities within the border

D) To gain greater economic autonomy from colonizers

E) To establish communications in the country

A) To access more raw materials

The border between the United States and Canada along the 49th parallel is an example of what type of boundary?

A) Subsequent boundary

B) Antecedent boundary

C) Superimposed boundary

D) Relic boundary

E) Demarcation of boundary

B) Antecedent boundary

Which of the following is the largest proselytizing religion?

A) Hinduism

B) Christianity

C) Islam

D) Buddhism 

E) Shintoism

B) Christianity

Which alternative energy source involves converting decaying plant matter into energy used to generate electricity or power engines?

A) Biodiversity

B) Solar power

C) Biomass

D) Orgainc conversion

E) Fermentation

C) Biomass

The Human Development Index is a measure of both economic production and…

A) Social indicators

B) Population density

C) Unemployment rates

D) Income per capita

E) Income disparity

A) Social indicators

Which of the following is an example of quaternary economic activity?

A) Entertainment

B) Research and development

C) Oil production

D) Agriculture

E) Transportation

B) Research and development

All of the following crops are products of Mediterranean agriculture EXCEPT…

A) Olives

B) Grapes

C) Dates

D) Figs

E) Apples

E) Apples

Which of the following refers to the decision to abandon the use of a product that harms the enviroment and switch to a product that is more environmentally friendly?


A) Subsistence

B) Substitution principle

C) Sustainability

D) Conservation

E) Recycling

C) Sustainability

A developer clears several acres of forest to make room for a shopping center. All traces of the original landscape have been eliminated. This is an example of…


B) Topicide

C) Sustainable development

D) Desertification

E) Agribusiness

B) Topicide

Which Chinese city is home to one of the world’s largest industrial parks?

A) Beijing

B) Chengdu

C) Shanghai

D) Wuhan

E) Yenchuan

C) Shanghai

Which of the following is a characteristics of a downward transition area?

A) High unemployment rate

B) A large tax base

C) Population growth

D) Rapid economic growth

E) High cost of living

A) High unemployment rate

During the contagion stage of Richard Nolan’s growth model…

A) Technology is used minimally

B) Technology begins to spread

C) People become frustrated with technology

D) Practical uses for technology are developed

E) Technology is integrated into the workplace

B) Technology begins to spread

Which area of the United States is known as a megalopolis?

A) The Mid-Atlantic

B) The Eastern Great Lakes

C) The Southwest

D) The South

E) The Pacific Northwest

A) The Mid-Atlantic

Cities in areas that have a high chance of being affected by natural disasters are required to develop emergency transit plants to…

A) Help urban residents prepare for natural disasters

B) Eliminate the dangers posed by natural disasters

C) Determine where natural disasters might strike

D) Help urban residents evacuate in response to natural disasters

E) Minimize the effect of natural disasters

D) Help urban residents evacuate in response to natural disasters

Housing in edge cities is often meant to create a semirural fantasy space in which houses and gardens are typically…

A) Natural and unfenced

B) Extremely similar and minimalist

C) Sleek and modernist

D) Designed for agricultural use

E) Well manicured and gated

E) Well manicured and gated

Job sprawl involves the migration of jobs out of the urban cores of cities into…

A) Entertainment complexes

B) The outermost rings surrounding cities

C) Gated communities

D) Sacred landscape

E) Ports and waterways

B) The outermost rings surrounding cities

When rural-urban migration is a cycle rather than a flow, it is likely because rural residents must return to rural areas to…


A) Conduct religious rituals

B) Obtain an education

C) Hunt wild game

D) Raise agricultural crops

E) Undergo military training

D) Raise agricultural crops

During the 1950s many urban American neighborhoods came to be segregated because of redlining, a practice engaged in by…

A) Corporate real estate directors

B) Banks and other leading institutions

C) Independent surveyors

D) Civil rights activitist

E) Renovators of historic homes

B) Banks and other leading institutions

Which of the following statements is true?


  1. Ester Boserup was a principal critic of Malthusian theory and argued that overpopulation could be solved by increasing the number of subsistence farmers

  2. Ernst Ravenstein developed the Least Cost Theory that focused on the location of factories versus the various costs associated with that location point

  3. Homer Hoyt created the Concentric Zone Model

  4. Harold Hotelling developed the World Systems Theory that classified states according to their economic development

aEster Boserup was a principal critic of Malthusian theory and argued that overpopulation could be solved by increasing the number of subsistence farmers

According to Griffin and Ford’s Latin American City Model, a common trend is…


  1. All business takes place only in the central core of the city

  2. The most expensive housing is found on the exterior fringes of the city

  3. As one moves away from the CBD the quality of housing decreases

  4. The Sector Model is the perfect layout to match every Latin American city’s development

c. As one moves away from the CBD the quality of housing decreases

Which of the following is true of a choropleth maps?

I. Represent data with tonal shading

II. Connects points of equal or lesser value

III. A map displaying population density is often a choropleth

IV. Exaggerates size based on statistical value of particular theme


  1. I and III

  2. I, II, III and IV

  3. II and III

  4. I, II and IV

  5. III only

a. I and III

What do the pillars of sustainability include?


  1. Bringing together environmental protection, economic growth and social equity

  2. Things that are non-tangible and are only hoped for

  3. Creating laws with rigid consequences

  4. Education for all children

  5. Equal access to clean water

a. Bringing together environmental protection, economic growth and social equity

Which of the following regions does not have an area located in the Tropics climate zone?


  1. Asia

  2. Europe

  3. Africa

  4. Australia

  5. South America

b. Europe

The theory of environmental determinism generalizes a region’s culture as being shaped by…


  1. The combined influences of the physical geography of the region

  2. Access to waterways for transport

  3. The population’s choice of a staple food crop

  4. The dominant religion of the region

  5. People’s ability to live sustainably and prevent population pressure

a. The combined influences of the physical geography of the region


(Geographic Information Science)

-The development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satelitte and other electronic information technologies

-Helps geographers create more accurate and complex maps adn to measure changes over time in the characteristics of places

Growth Poles

-Point of economic growth usually in urban areas benefiting from agglomeration

-Ex. Silicon Valley for high-tech computer industries (California), the Research Triangle an epicenter for research and development companies (North Carolina), universities, medical centers

Labor Intensive Industries

-Industries where labor costs are high compared to capital costs


Ex. Clothing, hospitality industry (hotels, restaurants, etc)

Relative Distance

-Transforms linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the space relationship in question; measured in terms of time, effort or cost


Ex. The drive between Sydney and Melbourne is 10 hours

Cognitive Distance

-Distance people perceive exists in a given situation

-Ex. I think it is shorter to reach Temecula Parkway by taking Butterfield Stage, but my cousing thinks it is faster to use Meadows Parkway

Contagious Diffusion

Distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person

Ex. Contagious diseases like influenza, ideas on the World Wide Web, or the wave among fans at a sporting event

What was the purpose of Ptolemy’s Guide to Geography?
To codify basic principles of mapmaking

What is an advantage to a Mercator map projection?

a. Shape is distorted very little

b. Landmasses at the poles are very accurate

c. It is very useful to display information across the ocean

d. The eastern and western hemispheres are separated

e. It was developed using GIS technology

a. Shape is distorted very little
What are the three main properties of distribution that geographers look at?
-Density, concentration and pattern
What has been the three main era’s of immigration in the United States?

–Colonial settlement in 17th and 18th century
–Mass European migration in late 19th and early 20th centuries
–Asian and Latin American immigration in late 20th and early 21st centuries

This country moved its capital to the interior of the country causing people to move from the crowded coast and causing a mass interregional migration. Name the country.


The Trail of Tears and the Atlantic Slave trade are what type of migration?



Forced Migration

The destination for most interregional migrants within Canada are British Columbia, _______________, and Saskatchewan?



(Pattern is westward)

•Net migration from urban to rural areas is known as…




Most intraregional migration in core countries is from cities to their surrounding ___________.


Today more than half of immigrants coming to the United States settle in what four states?

–New York



Russia is the largest country in terms of land, however most people are densely clustered in what region of the country?



Western (European portion)

The most common measure of population change in a country is determined by looking at what factors?

a. Crude birth rate, crude death rate, and total fertility rate

b. Crude birth rate, total fertility rate and life expectancy

c. Crude birth rate, crude death rate, and natural increase rate

d. Natural increase rate, life expectancy and infant mortality rate

e. Life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and total fertility rate

c. Crude birth rate, crude death rate, and natural increase rate
On what continent will you find most countries with a young population?



-With 44 percent of its population under age 15 in 2006, sub-Saharan Africa is the youngest region of the world 

Which of the following branches belong to the Indo-European language family?

a. Indo-Iranian, Austro-Thai and Germanic

b. Indo-Iranian, Romance and Germanic

c. Indo-Iranian, Romance and Altaic

d. Indo-Iranian, Germanic and Benue-Congo

e. Indo-Iranian, Proto-Uralic and Germanic


b. Indo-Iranian, Romance and Germanic

 The Elderly support ratio is the number of working age people ages 15-64 divided by the number of persons 65 or older; where in the world would this be a low number

In 24 countries (mostly in Europe) the ratio is down to 5 (lowest in Japan, Italy and Germany at 3)

What is abiotic?

Composed of nonliving and inorganic matter


Ex. Three of the four Earth’s systems are abiotic: atmosophere ( thin layer of gases) , hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (crust and upper mantle)

What is uneven development?
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of globalization of the economy
What is polder?
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
Define Preservation
The maintaince of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possible
What is a floodplain?

The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends


Many people are forced to move due to water-related distasters including flooding

What is an IDP?

Internally Displaced Person

-Forced to migrate as a refugee but has not crossed over an international border

-In 2010 the UN reported about 14.7 million IDPS 

Asian Migrant Workers

-Due to China’s booming factory industry, workers from Vietnam and other neighboring countries are coming for work; also major internal migration within China for factory jobs

-Oil rich countries in Southwest Asia lure workers from poorer countries as guest workers; claims that conditions are not always adequate 

What is the Schengen Treaty?

-In 1985 gave a citizen of one European country the right to hold a job, live permanently and own property elsewhere


-Opened up migration with largest migrations from the poorer countries of Europe to the richer ones where job opportunities are greater


Today in Europe the largest migration flow within the continent is from where to where?

-From Poland to Germany

– From Romania to Spain

What has been the trend in European migration flows regionally?

-From Southeastern Europe (esp. Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Serbia) especially to Italy and Spain

-From Eastern Europe (esp. Poland, as well as Russia and Ukraine) especially to Germany, United Kingdom and Ireland

-From Northern Europe (esp. UK and Germany) to the attractive climates in Southern Europe (esp. Spain)

Define Intervening Obstacle

An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration


-Ex. Crossing a mountainous border or political restrictions on migration

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