AP Human Geography

Acid deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emittef by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth’s surface
Acid percipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog.
Active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plat collectors.
Agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by the intergration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by larger corporations.
Agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relies entirely on hunting and gathering.
Agriculture
THe deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and economic growth.
Air pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Animate power
Power supplied by people or animals.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the USA.
Apartheid
Laws(no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically seperated differnt races into different geographic areas
Arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Autonomous religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Balance of power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts amoung it ethnicities.
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicites with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Base line
An east-west line designated uner the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate th surveying and numbering of townships in the USA.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
Biodiversity
THe number of species within a specific habitat.
Biomass fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood.
Boundary
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory.
Brain drain
Large-scale emigration of talented people.
Branch (of a religon)
A large and fundamental division within a religon.
Break-of-bulk point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Breeder reactor
A nuclear power plant that creates it own fuel from plutonium.
British Recieved Pronunciation
The dualect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the UK.
Bulk-gaining industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprices a greater volume than the inputs.
Bulk-reducing industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprices a lower volume than the inputs.
Bulk-reducing industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprices a lower volume than the inputs.
Busines services
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including profession, financial, and transportation services.
Cartography
The science of map making.
Caste
Th class or distince hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Census tract
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Central business district (CBD)
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from surrounding areas.
Central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services based on the face that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a large number of people who are willing to travel further.
Centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food.
Chaff
Husks of grain seperated from the seeds by threshing.
Chain migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Chloroflourocarbon
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a regrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire exstinguishers.
Circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
Ciy-state
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinderland.
Clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a soveriegn state rather than completely independent.
Combine
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Compact state
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area.
Concenctric zone model
A model of internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arragned in a series of rings.
Connections
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapic rate than can be replaced.
Consumer services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services.
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trent throughout a population.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Cottage industry
Manufacturing vased in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Council of goverment
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local goverments in a metropolitan area in the USA.
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Creole or creolized languages
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Crop
Grain or fruit gatherd from a field as a harbest during a particular season.
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 100 people alive in the society.
Crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 100 people alive in the society.
Cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human enviorment relations.
Cultural landscaping
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct relations.
Custom
The frequent repitition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the groupt o people performing the act.
Demographic transition
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increate to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population.
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Demonation
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congragations in a single legal and administrative body.
Density
The frequncy with which something exusts within a given unit of area.
Density gradient
The change in adensity in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Desertification
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal graxing, and tree cutting.
Development
A process of improvement in the material conditions o people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Dialect
A regional varity of a language distinquished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Diocese
The basic unit of geogrpahic organization of the Roman Catholic Church.
Dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clusterd villages.
Distnace decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disapperance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth’s surace.
Double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Doubling time
The number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Ebonics
Dialects spoen by some African Americans.
Economic base
A community’s collection of basic industries.
Ecumene
The portion of the Earth’s surface occupied by permanant human settlement.
Edge city
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Elonated state
A state with a long, narrow shape.
Emigration
Migration from a location
Enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England durin the eighteenth century.
Enviormental determinism
A ninteenth-and earth twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that the general laws sought by human geogrpahers could be found in the physical sciencees. Geography was thereore the study of how the physical enviorment caused human activities.
Epidemiologic transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demoraphic transition
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Ethnic cleansing
Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous society.
Ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
Expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people daily activities but is no longer used.
Fair trade
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and wprker pwned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing and comply with minimum enviormental and safety standards.
Federal state
An internal organization of a state that allocates most power units of local goverment.
Ferrous
Metals, including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and fuel.
Filtering
A process of change in the use of a home, from a single-family owner occupancy to abandoment.
Fission
The splitting of an atomicc nucleus to release energy.
Floodplain
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced in small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Forced migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Fordist production
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Formal region
(or uniform or homogenious region) An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
Fossil fuel
Energy source formed from the residue of plants animals buried millions of years ago.
Fragmented state
A state that includes several discontinous pieces of territory.
Franglais
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language; combination of francais and anglais, the French words for “French” and “English,” respectively.
Frontier
A zone seperating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Functional (or nodal) region
An area organized around a node or focal point.
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence go basic principles of a religion (or religious branch, denomination, or sect.)
Fusion
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
Gender Empowered Measure (GEM)
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
Geographic information system (GIS)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geogrpahic data.
Geothermal energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten undergound rock.
Gerrymandering
Process of redrawing legislativve boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
Ghetto
During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of somethin on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and recievers.
Grain
Seed or cereal grass.
Gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Green Revolution
Rapid diffusion of a new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seed and fertilizers.
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urbanized area.
Greenhouse effect
Anticipated increase in Earth’s temoerature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The value of the total input of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year).
Guest workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Habit
A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
Hierarchial religion
A religon in which a central authority excercises a high degree of control.
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Hull
The outer covering of a seed.
Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of develoopment for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combing income, literacy, education, and live expectancy.
Hydroelectric power
Power generated from moving water.
Ideograms
The system of writing used China and other East Asia countries in which each symbol represents and idea or a concept rather than a speciific sound, as isthe case with letters in English.
Immigration
Migration to a new location.
Imperialism
Cotrol of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
Inanimate power
Power supplied by machines
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufactured goods.
Infant mortality rate
The totl number of death in a year amog infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in society.
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which armers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield for a parcel of land.
Internal migration
Permanent movement within a particular coutry.
Intraregional migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Intervening obstacle
An enviormental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Isogloss
A boundary that seperates regions in which different language usages predominate.
Isolate language
A language tgat is unrelate to any other language and therefore not attached to any language family.
Labor intensive industry
An industry from which labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses.
Land Ordinanace of 1785
A law that divided much of the USA into a system of townships to facilitate the sale o land to settlers.
Landlocked state
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
Language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family.
Language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origi in the relatively recent past and dispplay relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Less developed country (LDC)
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively rearly stage in the process o economic development.
Life expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical condictions. Life expectancy at birth is average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
literacy rate
the percentage of a country’s people who can read and write
Location
the position of anything on Earth’s surface
Literary tradition
a language that is written as well as spoken
Longitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measureing distance east and west of the prime meridian
Map
a two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it
Maquiladora
factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
Market area (hinterland)
the area surrounding a central place, from which ppl are attracted to use the place’s goods and services
medical revolution
medical technology invented in europe and north america that is diffued to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more ppl to live longer and healthier lives
mental map
an internal representation of a portion of earth’s surface
meridian
an arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
in the US, a central city of at least 50000 population, the county within which the city is located and adjacent countries meeting one o several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
Micropolitan statistical area
an urbanized area of btween 10000 and 50000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
microstate
a state that encompasses a very small land area
migration
form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
migration transition
change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industralization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the domographic transition
milkshed
the area surrounding a city from which milk is produced
missionary
an individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion
mobility
all types of movement from one location to another
monotheism
the doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
more developed country (MDC)
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of developement
multi-ethnic state
state that contains more than one ethnicity
multinational state
state that contains 2 or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recogniing each other as distinct nationalities
multiple nuclei model
model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged aroudn a collection of nodes of activities
nationalism
loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
nationality
identity with a group of ppl that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a rsult of being born there
nation-state
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
natural increase rate (NIR)
percentage growth of a population ina year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
net migration
difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
new international division of labor
transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled worker, from more developed to less developed countries
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers within the community
nonferrous
metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel
nonrenewable energy
a source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
official language
language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
outsourcing
a decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsiblility for production to independent suppliers
overpopulation
number of ppl in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
ozone
gas that absorbs ultraviolet solarf radiation, found in the stratosphere
paddy
malay word for wet rice
pagan
follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
pandemic
disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of th epopulation
parallel
a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to meridians
passive solar energy systems
solar energy system that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices
pastoral nomadism
form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
pasture
grass or othyer plants grown for feeding grazing animals
pattern
geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another one
peripheral model
a model of north american urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
photochemical smog
atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions
photovoltaic cell
solar energy cells, usually made of silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity
physiological density
number of ppl per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
pidgin language
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited bocabulary ofr lingua franca, used for communications amond speakers of 2 different languages
pilgrimage
journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
plantation
large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
polder
land created by the dutch by draining water from an area
pollution
addition of more waste than a resource caN ACCOMMODATE
polytheism
belief in more than one god
popular culture
culture found in a large, heterogenous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
population pyramid
a bar graph representing the distribution of popuation by age and sex
polliblism
theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but ppl have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
post-fordist production
adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
potential reserve
the amoung of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
preservation
maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible
primary sector
portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from earths’ surface
primate city
largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many ppl as the 2nd-ranking settlement
prime agricultural land
most productive farmland
prime meridian
meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the royal observatory at greenwich, England
principal meridian
a north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
productivity
value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
projection
system used to transfer locations from earth’s surface to a flat map
prorupted state
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extention
proven reserve
the amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
public housing
housing owned by the government; in the US, residents with low incomes–rents set at 30 percent of the family’s income
public services
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
pull factor
factor that induces ppl to move to a new location
push factor
factor that induces ppl to leave old residences
quotas
laws that place maximum limits on the number of ppl who can immigrate to a country each year
race
identity with a group of ppl descended from a common anscestor
radioactive waste
particles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation
ranching
form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
range (of a service)
distance ppl are willing to travel to use a service
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
reaper
machine that cuts grain standing in the field
recycling
separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of an unwanted material
redlining
process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
refugees
ppl who are forced to migrate from their home country and cant return for fear of persecution
regional studies
approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
relocation diffusion
spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of ppl from one place to another
remote sensing
acquisition of data about earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long distance methods
renewable energy
a resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans
resource
substance in the environment that is useful to ppl, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
ridge tillage
system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote geeater soil conversion
right-to-work state
a US state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that rquires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
rush hour
the four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
sanitary landfill
place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emission of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
sawah
flooded field for growing rice
secondary sector
portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
sect
a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
section
a square normally 1 mile on a side. Land Ordinance or 1785 divided townships in the US into 36 sections
Sector model
model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors radiating out from the CBD
seed agriculture
reproduciton of plants thorugh annhual introduciton of seeds
self-determination
concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
sex ratio
number of males per 100 females in a population
sharecropper
person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
shifting cultivation
form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a few yeares then left fallow for a long period
site
the physical character of a place
site factors
location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant , LAND LABOR CAPITAL
situation
location of a place relative to other places
situation factors
location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
slash-and-burn agriculture
fields cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
solstice
time when the sun is farthest from the equator
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
space-time compression
reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems

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