AP Geo

Acid deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth’s surface
Acid precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog
Active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Agribusiness
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
Agricultural density
(ratio) # of farmers: total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied on hunting ; gathering
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Air pollution
Concentration of trace sustances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
Animate power
Power supplied by people or animals
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants & stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms & earthquakes, have a descrete spirit and conscious life
Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the US
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically seperated different races into different geographic areas
Arithmetic density
total # of people   /   total land area
Autonomous religion
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally
Balance of power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down throuhg conflicts among its ethnicities
Balkanized
A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other
Base line
An E-W line designed under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
Basic industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution
Biodiversity
The # of species within a specific habitat
Biomass fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material & animal waste
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
Boundary
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory
Brain drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people
Branch (of a religion)
A large and fundamental division within a religion
Break-of-bulk point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
Breeder reactor
A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
British received pronunciation (BRP)
The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the UK
Bulk-gaining industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the imputs
Bulk-reducing industry
An industry in which the final product weighs;less or comprises a lower volume than the imputs
Business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services
Cartography
The science of making maps
Caste
The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law
Census
A complete enumeration of a population
Census tract
An area delineated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Central business district (CBD)
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
Central place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted by the surrounding area
Central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of servies, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services;larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a large number of people who are willing to travel father
Centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food
Chaff
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
Chain migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams ; fire exstinguishers
Circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regualr basis
City-state
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principals in another territory
Colony
A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
Combine
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
Commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Compact state
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area
Concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which scial groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
Connections
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Conservation
The sustainable use ; management of natural resource, through consuming at a lesss rapid rate than it can be replaced
Consumer services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
Cottage industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution
Council of government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the US
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in MDC’s
Creole / Creolized language
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Crop
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
Crop rotation
The practice of rotation use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The total # of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude death rate (CDR)
The total # of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural landscape
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and materials traits that together consitute a group of people’s distinct tradition
Custom
The frequesnt repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act
Demographic transition
The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth ; death rathes and low rate of natural increase TO;a condition of low crude birth ; death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
Denomination
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Density
The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Density gradient
The change in the density in a urban area from the center to the periphery
Dependency ratio
The # of people under age 15 and over age 64, compared;to the # of people active in the labor force
Development
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by voacabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Diocese

The basic unit of geographic organization in the

Roman Catholic Church

Dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Distance decay
The diminishing in importance of a phenomenon wht increasing distance from its origin
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Doubling time
The number of years needed to double a poplutation, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Ebonics
Dailect spoken by some African Americans
Economic base
A community’s collection of basic industries
Ecumene
The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by a permanent human settlement
Edge city
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Elongated state
A state with a long, narrow shape
Emigration
migration from a location
Enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the 18th century
Environmental determinism
The study of how the physical environment caused human activities
Epidemiologic transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Epidemiology
Branch of the medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
Ethnic cleansing
Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Ethnic religion
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Extinct language
A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
Fair trade
Alternative to international trade tehat emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards
Federal state
An international organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
Ferrous
Metals, including iron ore, that are utalized in the production of iron and steel
Filtering
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
Fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Floodplain
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Forced migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Fordist production
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country

Formal region

(uniform or homogeneous region)

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Fossil fuel
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Fragmented state
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Franglais
A term used by the french for English words that have entered the French language
Frontier
A zone separating 2 states in which neither exercises political control

Functional region

(nodal region)

An area organized around a node or focal point
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
Fusion
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of 2 hydrogen atoms to form helium
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Gentrification
A process converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied ares to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Georaphic information system (GIS)
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Geothermal energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks
Gerrymandering
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
Ghetto
During Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Grain
Seed of a cereal grass
Gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
Green revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
Greenhouse effect
Anticipated increase in Earth’s temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in the time zone encompassing the prime meridian, 0* longitude
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 yr)
Guest workers
Workers who migrate to the MDC’s of N & W Europe, usually from S & EEurope or N. Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs
Habit
A repetitive act performed by a partiular individual
Hearth
The region from which an innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of autority or power to other persons or places
Hierarchical religion
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Hull
The outer covering of a seed
Human Development Index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Hydroelectric power
Power generated from moving water
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other E Asian countries in which each symbo represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound
Immigration
Migration to a new location
Imperialism
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
Inanimate power
Power supplied by machines
Industrial Reolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the prosess of manufacturing goods
Imfant mortality rate (IMR)
The total # of deaths in a year among infants under 1 yr for every 1000 births in a society
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relitively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Internal migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
International Date Line

An arc that for the most part follows 180* longitude, although deviates to avoid dividing land area.

Heading E= back 24 hours, heading W=forward 24 hours

International migration
Permanent movement from one country to another
Interregional migration
Permanent move from one region of a country to another
Intervening obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intraregional migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any toher languages and therefore not atttached to any language family
Labor-intensive industry
An industry for which labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the US into a system of townships to facilitate that sale of land to settlers
Landlocked state
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a gorup of people to have the same meaning
Language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differentces are not that exstensive, differences derived from the same family
Language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammer and vocabulary
Latitiude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring the distance N&S of the equator (0*)
Less developed country (LDC)

A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development

(Also developing country)

Life expectancy
The average number of years an individual (newborn) can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions
Lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Literacy rate
The % of a country’s people who can read and write
Literacy tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken
Location
The postition of anything on Earth’s surface
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance E & W of the prime meridian (0*)
Map
A 2-dimentional (flat) representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it
Maquiladora
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
Market area / Hinterland
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services
Medical Revolution
Medica technology invented in Europe and N America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved practices have eliminated many traditional causes of death in poorer countries and provided longer, healthier lives
Mental map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where;places are located
Meridian
An arc drawn on a map between the N;; S poles
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
In the US, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the country within which the city is located, and adjacent countries meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
Micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the country in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city
Microstate
A state that encompasses a very small land area
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
Migration transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and sconomic changes that also produce the demographic transition
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Missionary
An individual who helps diffuse a universalizing religion
Mobility
All types of movement from one location to another
Monotheism
The doctrine or belief in the existence of only 1 god
More developed country (MDC)

A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development

(also relatively developed country /;developed country)

Multi-ethnic state
State that contains more than one ethnicity
Multinational state
State that contains 2 or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
Nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there
Nation-state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Natural increase rate (NIR)
The % growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus crude death rate
Net migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
New international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from MDC’s to LDC’s
Nonbasic industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
Nonferrous
Metals utalized to make products other than iron and steel
Nonrenewable energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
Official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
Outsourcing
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
Overpopulation
The # of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to suppport life at a decent standard of living
Ozone
A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 ; 50 kilometers (9-30 miles) above Earth’s surface
Paddy
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
Pagan
A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Passive solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices
Pastoral nomadism
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Pasture
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Perforated state
A state that completely surrounds another one
Peripheral model
A model of N American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
Photochemical smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions
Photovoltaic cell
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity
Physiological density
The # of people per unit of arable land, land suited for agriculture
Pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua france, used for communication among speakers of 2 different languages
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
Place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
Plantation
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of 1 or 2 crops for sale, usually to a MDC
Polder
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
Pollution
Addition of more waste than a resoure can accomodate
Polytheism
Belief or worship of more than one god
Popular culture
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in toehr personal characteristics
Population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Possibilism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Post-fordist production
Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
Potential reserve
The amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible
Primary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct exstracton of materials from Earth’s surface, generally through agriculture,;also by mining, fishing, forestry
Primate city
The largest settlement in;a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
Primate city rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement had more that twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
Prime agricultural land
The msot productive farmland
Prime meridian
The meridian, 0* longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Principal meridian
A N-S line designated in the Land Ordinance 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
Productivity
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of albor needed to make it
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map
Prorupted state
An toherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
Proven reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
Public housing
Housing owned by the government; in the US its rented to residents with low incomes, rent is set at 30% the families’ incomes
Public servies
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Pull factor
Factor that induces people to move to a new location
Push factor
Factor that induces people to leave old residences
Quotas
migration- laws that place maximum limits on the;# of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Race
Identity with a group of people decended from a common ancestor
Racism
Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
Racist
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
Radioactive waste
Particles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful/lethal to people; therefore they must be safely stored for thousands of years
Ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Range (of a service)
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Reaper
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field
Recycling
The sereration, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot raturn for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
Region
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional studies
An approach to geography that emphasises the relationships among social ; physical phenomena in a particular study area
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing
The aquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods
Renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically & technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Ridge tillage
System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Right-to-work state
A US state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
Rush hour / peak hour
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
Sanitary landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer if earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
Sawah
A flooded field for growing rice
Scale
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface
Secondary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Section
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the US into 36 sections
Sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectore, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD)
Seed agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introdution of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization
Self-determination
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Service
Any activity that fufills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
Settlement
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
Sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population
Sharecropper
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent ; repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
Shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relativelyfew years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Site
The physical character of a place
Site factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
Situation
The location of a place relative to other places
Situation factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Smart growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Solstice
Time when sun is farthest from the equator
Sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory from from control of its internal affairs by other states
Space
The physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-time compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Spanglish
Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area
Spring wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Squatter settlement
An area within a city in a LDC in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent;; erect homemade structures
Standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on LDC’s by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing gov spending, controllin inflation, selling publicly owned utilites to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services
Subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide for for direct consumption by the farmer and their family
Sustainable agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops & reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
Sustainable development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
Swidden
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Taboo
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
Terroir
The contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to a way food tastes
Tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Textile
A fabric made by weaving, used an making clothing
Threshing
The beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support a service
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her child bearing years
Township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the US into a series of townships
Trading bloc
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade wiht eash other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
Transnational corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Triangular slave trade
A practice, primarily through the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
Truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming
Underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic charateristics
Undocumented immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents
Uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Unitary state
An internal oranizationof a state that places the most power in the hands of the central government officials
Universalizing religion
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location
Urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents adn business, clear the site, build new roads & utilities, and turn the land over to private developers
Urbanization
An increase in the % and in the # of people living in urban settlements
Urbanized area
In the US, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs
Value added
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
Vegetative planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants (ex:stems)
Vernacular region / perceptual region
An area that peopel believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Voluntary migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice
Vulgar Latin
A form of Latin used in daily convercation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents
Wet rice
Rice planted in dryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
Winnow
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown awya by the wind
Winter wheat
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
Economic land use model
Looks at the present and addresses land use for development now by developing & building on the land for profit now
Topocide
Killing off of a landscape deliberately to build a new one
Sustainability land use model
Taking something from the land and replacing it with something else
Environmental land use model
Suggests we can build on teh ladn but must leave it in its natural state; structures must not overwhelm or alter natural landscape
Preservationist land use model
See the landscape as sacred and should not be touched by humans
Ecotourism
Using the natural beauty of an area as a selling point to promote tourism and generate funds to preserve the ecological community
Debt-for-nature swap
Forgiveness of debts in exchnage for the psetting aside of land for conservation or preservation
Tragedy of the commons
Theory that suggests humans will inevitably do what is best for them despite what is best for the public good (William Foster Lloyd- Garrett Hardin)
Fossil fuels

Come from the breakdown of carbon-bases sediment over long periods of time under great presure

(ex: coal, oil, natural gas)

Reserves
Amount of the resource left in the groud yet to be used
Production
Removal of the resource
Resource crisis
Eventual depletion of fossil fuels and a resulting colllapse of energy-dependent societies
Open pit mine
Where the land is removed and the resources are exstracted in the open air
Shaft mine
Where tunnels are dug deep into the earth and extend for miles horizontaly
Wind farms
Windmill parks-where wind turbines are located
Wind energy
The movement of wind to create power
Geothermal power
Uses heat fomr the interior of the Earth to heat buildings on teh surface

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