2013 EOC Vocabulary

Chapter 1- Exploring Geography

 

 

 

Geography-

Geography is the study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other.
G.I.S.-
G.I.S.- (geographic information systems)- uses computer technology to collect, manipulate, analyze, and display data about the earth’s surface in order to solve geographic problems.
geographic tools-
geographic tools- maps, graphs, charts, sonar, satellites, GPS(global positioning system), and GIS
GPS (Global Positioning System)-
This system relies on a network of 24 satellites orbiting the earth.  Using atomic clocks, the satellites broadcast extremely accurate time measurements.  Back on earth, GPS units analyze these time signals to provide information about location.
5 Themes of Geography-
5 Themes of Geography- location, place, region, movement, and human environment interaction
Location- can be absolute or relative

absolute location– its position on the globe, its grid coordinates, latitude and longitude.  A place has only 1 absolute location

 

relative location– or its relation compare to other places.  A place can have more than one relative location.  Example- New Boston is 25 miles west of Texarkana

hemisphere-

The Equator divides the world into two hemispheres. Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere

 

The Prime Meridian divides the world into two hemispheres. Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere

Character of a place-
The character of a place consists of the place’s physical and human characteristics
3 Types of Regions-

Formal Region-A group of places that have similar attributes, for example, a political region- country

Functional Region- A group of places connected by movement, for example, the region drained by the Amazon Ribver and its tributaries. (DFW Airport)

Perceptual Region – A group of places that is defined by people’s feelings and attitudes (Is Missouri part of the South or the North US)

A view point that is influences by one’s own culture and experiences
perception

An example of movement

 

 

A group of people moving from one place to another

migration
Human-Environment Interaction-
How have people changed the enviornment positively or negatively- irrigation, deforestation, air pollution, recycling
Geology-
the study of the earth’s physical structure and history
Earth’s Layers-
inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
core-
The earth’s center, consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core and molten, or liquid, in the outer core
mantle-
A thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earth’s crust that surrounds the earth’s core
crust-
The solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth
lithosphere-
the surface features of the earth, including soil, rocks, and landforms
atmosphere-
the layer of gases, water vapor, and other substances above the earth
hydrosphere-
the water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, and under the ground
biosphere-
the world of plants, animals, and other living things in earth’s land and waters
continents-
any of the seven large landmasses of the earth’s surface: Africa, Antartica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America
relief-
the differences in elevation, or height, of the landforms in any particular area
Landforms are shaped first by internal forces that originate in the earth’s interior.  One of these forces is ?

volcanism- involves the movement of magma, or molten rock, inside the earth.

 

 

Other major internal forces consist of movements that fold, lift, bend, or break the rock of the earth’s crust.

plate tectonics-
The theory that the earth’s outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rock, whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity
continental drift theory-
the idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates on which they ride
seafloor spreading-
molten rock from the mantle rises beneath the underwater ridge and breaks through a split, called a rift valley, at the top of the ridge.  The rock then spreads out in both directions from the ridge as if it were on two huge conveyor belts.  As the seafloor moves away from the ridge, it carries older rocks away.

convection-

 

 

Force that sends the tectonic plates moving

is a circular movement caused when a material is heated, expands and rises, then cools and falls.  This process is thought to be occurring in the mantle rocks beneath the plates.  The heat energy that drives convection probably comes from the slow decay of materials under the crust.
Ring of Fire-
A ring of volcanic mountains surrounding the Pacific Ocean
San Andreas Fault-
California’s San Andreas Fault lies on the boundary of the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate.  The fault is over 750 miles long, frequently cause earthquakes
Major Types of Plate Movement-

subduction– when an oceanic plate meets a continental plate, it slides beneath the lighter plate down toward the mantle

spreading– when plates pull away from each other.  they form a diverging plate boundary, or spreading zone.  Areas are likely to have rift valleys, earthquakes, and volcanoes

converging– when two continental plates collide, neither will sink, causing a slow, violent collision.

faulting– plates sometimes slip or grind past each other along faults.

geyser-
A natural hot spring that shoots a column of water and steam into the air
The crust is divided into how many plates?
12-13
geographic tools-
instruments used to collect, organize, store, or display geographic information
physical characteristics-
Features of the earth’s surface, such as landforms, water systems, climate patterns, and plant and animal life

physical processes-

 

actions of nature that change the physical enviornment

Chapter 2- Climates and Ecosystems

 

 

 

climates-

Regional long-term trends in weather and atmospheric conditions

ecosystems-

 

Networks of plants and animals interacting with the environment
patterns of settlement-
distribution of populations among urban and rural communities
urbanization-
increase in the percentage of people living in cities
migration-
movement of people, often influenced by push and pull factors
population growth-
increase in the number of people in a specific area
cultures-
learned behavior of people, including their belief systems, languages, governments, and material goods
Science and Technology-
discoveries and inventions that help people to change or adapt to their environments
Government and Citizenship-
how different viewpoints influence political descisions, divisions, and policies connected to geographic issues
Cooperation and Conflict
methods used by countries and organizations to pursue goals, such as maintaining or expanding control over territory
Economic Systems-
ways in which a society satisfies the basic needs through the production and distribution of goods and services
Econonmic Activities-
use of natural resources, production of goods, provision of services, and distribution of information
Global Trade Patterns-
International networks for exchanging goods and services
natural resources-
Any part of the natural enviornment that people need and value
natural hazzards-
natural events in the physical environment that are destructive, such as volcanoes and hurricanes
Environmental Change-
natural or human alterations to the environment

Understanding the past-

 

Analysis of how geography has affected historic events and how places, environments, and cultures have changed over time
Planning for the future-
Use of geographic knowledge and skills to analyze problems and make decisions that affect the future
weathering-
the breakdown of rock at or near the earth’s surface into smaller and smaller pieces
mechanical weathering-
Occurs when rock is actually broken or weakened physically.  It breaks large masses of rock into smaller pieces, producing boulders, stones, pebbles, sand, silt, and dust.  Involved in soil building
frost wedging-
most common type of mechanical weathering- takes place when water freezes to ice in a crack in the rock. because water expands when it freezes, the ice widens the crack and eventually splits the rock
another kind of mechanical weathering-
occurs when seeds take root in cracks in rocks, a rock will split as plants or trees grow within a crack(fracture) in the rock
Chemical Weathering-

alters a rock’s chemical makeup by changing the minerals that form the rock or by combining them with new chemical elements

 

can change one kind of rock into a completely different kind

acid rain-

 

type of chemical weathering, chemicals in the polluted air combine with water vapor and fall back to earth as acid rain

 

destroys forrests and pollutes water, but also eats away the surface of stone buildings and natural rock formations

3 causes of acid rain-
industrial pollution, acid-producing agents from the ocean, and volcanic activity
erosion-
the movement of weathered materials such as gravel, soil, and sand
3 causes of erosion-
water, wind, and glaciers
sediment-
small particles of soil, sand, and gravel
loess-
windblown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt that benefits farmers
glaciers-
huge, slow-moving sheets of ice
moraines-
ridgelike piles of rocks and debris left behind by glaciers

Chapter 2- Climates and Ecosystems

 

 

weather-

the condition of the bottom layer of the earth’s atmosphere in one place over a short period of time
climate-
the term for weather patterns that an area typically experiences over a long period of time
green house effect-
the earth’s atmosphere has been compared to the glass walls and roof of a greenhouse, which traps the sun’s warmth for growing plants.  Without this greenhouse effect, the earth would be too cold for most living things
rotation-
the earth spins on its axis like a top, the earth completes one rotation every 24 hours
revolution-
the earth revolves around the sun in a circular path called an orbit.  A revolution is one complete orbit around the sun.  One orbit or revolution is completed every 365 1/4 days( one year)
solstices-
the summer and winter solstices- the days when the sun appears directly overhead at the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer
equinoxes-

spring and fall equinoxes-

on these two days, the sun at noon, appears directly overhead at the Equator and the length of day and night are nearly equal everywhere on earth

How does Latitude affect climate-
The sun’s rays always fall most directly at or near the Equator.  Most places near the Equator have warm climates, while areas farthest from the Equator are cold like the North and South Poles
How is the sun’s heat distributed around the globe?

Heat is distributed by a process called convection- which is the transfer of heat from one place to another.

Convection occurs inside the earth and in both air and water.  Movements of air are called wind.  Movements of water are called currents.

Precipitation-
is all forms of water that fall from the atmosphere onto the earth’s surface
The Water Cycle-

evaporation

condensation (clouds form)

precipitation

3 Types of Precipitation-

Convectional Precipitation-

Orographic Precipitation-

Frontal Precipitation-

Other factors that influence climate-

being close to a body of water- having a coastal climate or a continental climate

elevation of the land

close to landforms

World Climate Regions-

tropical wet

tropical wet and dry

semiarid

arid

mediterranean

humid subtropical

marine west coast

humid continental

subarctic

turndra

ice cap

global warming-
a rise in the earth’s temperature that could partially melt polar ice caps, causing a rise in the level of the oceans and flooding of densely populated low-lying areas, increase in precipitation or droughts
clouds-

masses of tiny particles of water and dust floating in the atmosphere

 

A low cloud is called fog

ozone layer-
a band of ozone gas that absorbs the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays and scientists think it is getting thinner
ecosystem-
formed by the interaction of plant life, animal life, and the physical enviornment in which they live
biome-

used to describe major types of ecosystems that can be found in various regions throughout the world

 

example- deciduous forrest

Ecosystems-

deciduous forests

coniferous forests

mixed forests

tropical rain forest

chaparral forest

tropical grasslands- savannas

temperate grasslands- prairies

deserts

tundras

ice cap

highlands

deciduous trees-
trees that shed their leaves
coniferous trees-
named after the cones that protect their seeds
chaparral-

includes small evergreen trees and low bushes or scrub

chaparral is a Spanish word meaning “an area of underbrush and small trees”

herbivore

or carnivore

herbivore- plant eating animals like gazelles and zebras

 

carnivore- meat eating animals like lions and hyenas

permafrost-
a layer of soil just below the surface stays permanently frozen

chapter 3- Population and Culture

 

culture-

culture- the beliefs and actions that define a group of people’s way of life

demography-

 

demographics-

 

demographers-

the study of populations including topics like birth, death, marriage, and migration

 

the numbers and statistics that tell about a country

 

people whose job it is to study demography

How many people are there in the world?
Over 7 Billion
population density-
the average number of people in a square mile or square kilometer
arable land-
land that can be farmed

birthrate-

 

 

deathrate-

the number of live births each year per 1,000 people

 

 

the number of deaths each year per 1,000 people

immigrants-

 

emigrants-

 

migration-

people who move into a country

 

 

people who leave the country to live in other places

 

movement of people

urbanization-

 

 

urban-

 

 

rural-

the growth of city populations

 

living in the city

 

 

living in the country

material culture-

 

 

 

non material culture-

includes things that people make, such as food, clothing, architecture, arts, crafts, and technology

 

 

includes religion, language, spiritual beliefs, and patterns of behavior, government systems, education systems, attitudes towards the role of women and men

culture hearth-

 

a place where important ideas begin and from which they spread to surrounding cultures
What is the most important unit of social organization?
the family
cultural convergence-
occurs when the skills, arts, ideas, habits, and institutions of one culture come in contact with those of another culture
diffusion-
the process by which a cultural element is transmitted across some distance from one group or individual to another
cultural divergence-
the rescriction of a culture from outside cultural influences
Around how many countries are there in the world?
About 200
Four specific characteristics that define a place as a country

-clearly defined territory

-population

-sovereignty (a nation’s freedom from outside control)

-government

Types of Government Structures-

unitary system- where one central government runs a nation

 

federation-some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments

 

confederation- smaller political units keep their sovereignty and give the central government only limited powers

Types of Government Authority-

authoritarian– a system of government in which the leaders hold all political power

dictatorship– system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person

totalitarianism– system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society

monarchy– system of authoritarian government headed by a monarch- a king, queen, shah, or sultan- whose position is inherited

democracy– a system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy

Types of Economic Systems-

traditional economy– economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy

 

market economy– economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand

 

command economy– economic system that is controlled by a single central government

mixed economy- system combining different degrees of government regulation

chapter 4- Resources and Land Use

 

natural resources-

are materials in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs

renewable resources-

 

nonrenewable resources-

are constantly being regenerated or replaced by the environment, like soil and water

 

 

 

can not be replaced once they have been used, like fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas which formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals)

Energy Sources-

fossil fuels– nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel

 

nuclear energy- produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy

 

hydroelectric power- electricity that is generated by moving water

geothermal energy- energy produced from the earth’s intense interior heat

 

solar energy– energy produced by the sun

Economic Activities-

primary economic activities– economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, fishing, mining

subsistence farming– farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village

commercial farming– raising of crops or livestock for sale in markets

secondary economic activities– economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value

cottage industries– small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near people’s homes

commercial industries- large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods

tertiary economic activities– economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry

quaternary economic activities– economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education, or research

exports-

 

 

imports-

goods that are sent out of the country

 

goods that are brought into the country

Levels of Development of Countries-

developed- United States

 

developing-  Mexico

 

underdeveloped- Botswana, Africa

Chapter 5- Introduction to the United States and Canada

 

 

 

colony-

any territory separated from but subject to a ruling power.

 

example- Great Britain and the 13 colonies of the US before the US was it’s own country

How do scientists think people orginally came over to the Americas?
across a land bridge from Asia called the Bering Strait
annexed-
to formally incorporate into a country or state the territory of another
secede-
to withdraw formally from membership in a political or religious organization

civil war-

 

 

 

 

a conflict between opposing groups of citizens of the same country
ceded-
transferred land
Industrial Revolution-

the shift from human power to machine power

 

 

from farming(agriculture) to industry (manufacturing)

continental divide-
a boundary or area of high ground that separates rivers flowing toward opposite sides of a continent
drainage basins-
the entire area of land that is drained by a major river and its tributaries
tributaries-
a river or stream that flows into a main river
straitions
marks characterizing glaciated areas of rocks
rain shadow-
area of reduced rainfall on the leeward side of high mountains

literacy-

 

 

literacy rate-

ability to read and write

 

 

 

number of people age 15 or older that can read and write from a specific country used for demographic purposes

standard of living-
a person or group’s level of material well-being, as measured by education, housing, and healthcare, and nutrition
per capita-
per person

Chapter 6- A Profile of the United States

 

gross national product-

 

gross domestic product-

GNP– total value of a nation’s goods and services, including the output of domestic firms in foreign countries and excluding the domestic output of foreign firms

 

GDP– total value of goods and services produced within a country in a year, including the domestic output of foreign firms and excluding the output of domestic firms in foreign countries

canals-
artificial waterways
telecommunication-
communication by electronic means
free enterprise-
economic system that allows individuals to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses in an open, competitive market
metropolitan area-
a major city and its surrounding suburbs
hierarchy-
rank according to function
hinterlands-
area served by a metropolis
urban hierarchy-

metropolis

city

large town

village

farm

Chapter 7- Regions of the United States

 

The Northeast-

New England Region- Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey
megalopolis-

a very large city; a region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas, considered to be a single urban complex

 

example- BOSWASH

 

area from Boston to Washington D.C.

The South-
Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Kentucky, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Washington D.C.
mangroves-
tropical trees that grow in swampy ground along coastal areas
bayous-
marshy inlets or outlets of a lake or river
fall line-
imaginary line between the Applachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain, where rivers and streams form waterfalls and rapids as they descend from higher elevations to the coastal plain
Columbian Exchange-

The exchang from Europe, Africa, and Asia to the Americas of wheat, sugar, banana, rice, grape, olive oil, dandelion, horse, pig, cow, goat, chicken, small pox, typhus

 

From the Americas to Europe, Africa, and Asia- maize, potato, sweet potato,beans, peanut, squash, pumpkin, peppers, pineapple, tomato, cocoa

Sun Belt-
the band of southern states from the Carolinas to southern California
The Midwest-
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan
humus-
plants and animals that live in the soil die and decay producing the dark colored organic material called humus and combines with particles of weathered bedrock to help build more soil
growing season-
average number of days between the last frost of spring and the first frost of fall
grain elevators-
tall buildings equipped with machinery for loading, cleaning, storing, and discharding grain
grain exchange-
a place where grain is bought and sold as a commodity
Mississippi River-
flows 2,348 miles from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico
The West-
Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico
tundra-
a dry treeless plain where temperatures are always cool or cold and only specialized plants can grow
aqueducts-
large pipes or channels designated to transport water from a remote source over a long distance
Chapter 8- Canada
left blank
provinces-
how canada divides up its land into provinces and territories instead of states
maritime-

The Atlantic Provinces are often called the maritimes because of their close ties to the seas

 

maritimes means bordering on or related to the sea

Atlantic Provinces-

Newfoundland and Labrador

Prince Edward Island

Nova Scotia

New Bruswick

The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Provinces-

Quebec

Ontario

Great Lakes-

 

located between the United States and Canada

H.O.M.E.S

 

Lake Huron

Lake Ontario

Lake Michigan

Lake Erie

Lake Superior

lock-
enclosed area on a canal that raises or lowers ships from one water level to another
bedrock-
solid rock that is usually covered by soil, gravel, and sand
Prairie Provinces-

Alberta

Manitoba

Saskatchewan

British Columbia-
British Columbia the province
The Northern Territories-

Yukon Territory

Northwest Territories

Nunavut

First Canadians- Inuit and Native Americans

 

Vikings

 

French

 

English

What two languages do they speak in Canada?
English and French
separatism-
a movement to win political, religious, or ethnic independence from another group

multicultural society of Canada-

 

immigration-

Native Canadian including Inuit, British, French, German, Italian, Ukrainian, Scandinavian, Dutch, Polish, and other European, Asian
customs-
fees charged by a government on imported goods
Niagara Falls-
on the border between Canada and the United States (New York) is a pair of waterfalls known as Niagara Falls.  Water thunders over the falls at an average rate of 202,000 cubic feet per second.
tariffs-
taxes on imports
predator-

animals that feed upon other animals

 

examples of predators- wolves, bobcats

hibernation-
to avoid extreme winter temperatures, bears, wood chucks, and other mammals hibernate.  During the fall, they build up a store of fat in their bodies that will last until spring.  They then go into hibernation, which slows their bodily functions to a minimum

Chapter 9- Introduction to Latin America

 

 

conquistadors-

name for the Spanish explorers who claimed land in the Americas for Spain
caudillos-
A Latin America military dictator
pampas-
a grasslands region in Argentina and Uraguay
cays-
a small, low island or coral reef
coral-
the rocklike skeletons of tiny sea animals
Andes Mountains-
The rugged Andes Mountains are the highest mountains of Latin America along the western coast of South America
Amazon River Basin-
the largest and least explored of Brazil’s areas, it spreads across more than half of the country, gets more than 80 inches of rainfall per year, the rain forest is home to thousands of plants and animals
tropical storm-
a storm with winds of at least 39 miles per hour
hurricane-
a destructive tropical storm that forms over the Atlantic Ocean, usually in late summer and early fall, with winds of at least 74 miles per hour
typhoon-
a destructive tropical storm that forms over the Pacific Ocean
cyclone-
A violent, rotating windstorm around Australia
El Nino-
A warm ocean current off South America’s northwestern coast that influences global weather patterns
mestizo-
a person of mixed European and Native American heritage
mulatto-
a person of mixed African and European ancestry
deforestation-
the process of stripping the land of its trees

Population Pyramid-

 

textbook p.218

a graphic model that shows the gender/age composition of a population at a specific time

Chapter 10- Mexico

 

 

plateau-

an area of high, flat land
peninsula-
a strip of land that juts out into an ocean, surrounded on three sides by water

Sierra Madre Oriental-

 

 

Sierra Madre Occidental-

 

 

Plateau of Mexico (Central Plateau)-

mountain range on Mexico’s eastern coast

 

 

mountain range on Mexico’s western coast

 

 

plateau in the middle of Mexico where the capital city Mexico City is and where most of the people live

irrigation-
the watering of farmland with water drawn from reservoirs or rivers
Yucatan Peninsula-
dotted with sinkholes, the southern end of Mexico that sticks up like a thumb into the Gulf of Mexico and where the resort city of Cancun, Mexico is, gets lots of hurricanes
sinkhole-
a hole formed when limestone is dissolved, causing the land above to collapse
A Place of Three Cultures-
Indian, Spanish, and Modern make up Modern Mexico
haciendas-
a large Spanish owned estate in the Americas, often run as a farm or a cattle ranch
Mexican Revolution-
in 1910, peasants and middle class Mexicans rebelled by standing up to the military dictator and the landlords who together controlled the country, the fighting ended in 1920
land redistribution-
a policy by which land is taken from those who own large amounts and redistributed to those who have little or none
ejidos-
farmland owned collectively by members of a rural community
latifundios-
large commericial farms owned by a private individual or a farming complany
cash crops-
a farm crop grown for sale and profit
migrant worker-

a worker who travels from place to place, working where extra help is needed to cultivate or harvest crops

 

NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement-
which phased out trade barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
maquiladoras-
a factory in Mexico, along the United States border, that assembles goods for export
Mexico’s Air Pollution-

Chapter 11- Central America and the Caribbean

 

isthmus-

a narrow strip of land having water on each side and joining two larger bodies of land

 

example- Central America- 7 countries

Central America- 7 countries-

Guatemala

Belize

El Salvador

Honduras

Nicaragua

Coasta Rica

Panama

guerrilla-
a member of an armed force that is not part of a regular army; relating to a form of warfare carried on by such an independent armed force
earthquake-
a shaking of the ground caused by sudden movements in the earth’s crust
tsunami-
a huge wave caused primarily by a disturbance beneath the ocean, such as an earthquake or a volcanic eruption

landslide-

 

 

mudslide-

landslide- a sudde drop of a mass of land on a mountainside or hillside

 

 

part of the side of a hill falling, sliding off

infastructure-
the basic support facilities of a community or country, such as roads and bridges, power plants and schools
avalanche-
a sudden fall of a mass of ice and snow
aftershocks-
tremor that occurs after an earthquake

seismic waves-

 

 

 

epicenter-

seismic waves- vibration caused by a movement of tectonic plates

 

 

epicenter- the point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

archipelago-
a group of islands
coral islands-
an island formed by the skeletal remains of tiny sea animals and the sand and sediment piling on top of them

windward-

 

 

leeward-

windward- side of an island or mountain that is facing the wind

 

leeward- side of an island or mountain that is facing away from the wind

calypso music-
a form of folk music that spread from Trinidad throughout the Caribbean using steel drums.  the music traces its roots to the songs sung by enslaved Africans who worked on the plantations of Trinidad

Chapter 12- Brazil

 

escarpment-

a steep cliff that separates two level areas of differing elevations
sertao-
an interior plateau in Brazil with poor soil and uncertain rain
favela-
a slum community in a Brazilian city, for example there are favelas outside of the city of Rio de Janiro, Brazil
plantations-
a large estate farmed by many workers
gasohol-
a fuel mixture of gasoline and ethanol
ecotourism-
tourism that encourages environmental awareness and has little effect on the ecosystem

Chapter 13- Countries of South America

 

 

bauxite-

a mineral used in making aluminum
llanos
grassy plains
Angel Falls-
Waterfall in Venezuela about 20 times higher than Niagara Falls and plunges down to the Churun River

cordillera-

 

 

 

campesino-

a related set of separate mountain ranges

 

 

 

 

in Latin America, a tenant farmer or farm worker

altiplano-
a plateau region located in the Andes Mountains of Bolivia and Peru

paramo-

 

 

 

 

timberline-

a plateau in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador

 

 

 

 

 

the boundary in high elevations above which continuous forest vegetation cannot grow

estuary-

 

 

 

 

 

piedmont-

the wide mouth of a river, where freshwater river currents meet salt water

 

 

 

 

a region of rolling foothills

gauchos-
a cowboy who herded cattle in the pampas of Argentina and Uraguay

Chapter 14- Introduction to Western Europe-

 

cultural diffusion-

the process by which people adopt the practices of their neighbors
Renaissance-
the revival of art, literature, and learning that took place in Europe during the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries
summit-
the highest point of a mountain or similar elevation
North European Plain-
the North European Plain stretches eastward from France to Northern Eurasia
prevailing westerlies-
The North Atlantic Drift carries tropical waters toward Europe.  The winds that blow across this warm current are the prevailing westerlies- the constant flow of air from west to east in the temperate zones of the earth
euro-
a single currency to be used by member nations of the European Union
compulsory-
required

Chapter 15- The British Isles and Nordic Nations

 

fertile-

able to produce abundant crops

United Kingdom-

England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland

What is the capital city of the United Kingdom?
London
ore-
a rocky material containing a valuable mineral
The English Channel Tunnel also called the Chunnel connects which two countries?
England (United Kingdom) and France

moor-

 

 

 

bog-

moor- broad, treeless, rolling land, often poorly drained and having patches of marsh and peat bog

 

 

bog- an area of wet, spongy ground

glen-
a narrow valley

What is the capital city of Ireland?

 

Is Ireland mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant?

Dublin

 

 

 

Roman Catholic

Nickname for Ireland?

 

 

what is peat?

Emerald Isle for its green land

 

 

peat- a spongy material containing waterlogged mosses and plants that covers 1/6 of Ireland

blight-

 

 

 

Potato Famine-

blight- plant disease that destroyed the potato crop year after year in Ireland and Europe in the 1840’s

 

 

the blight affected potato crops causing a Famine in Ireland in the 1840’s, this caused a lot of people to immigrate to the United States.  1 million Irish died of starvation

Nordic Nations-

also called Norden- from an ancient word meaning Northlands

 

 

includes- Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark

fjords-
a narrow valley or inlet from the sea, originally carved out by an advancing glacier and filled by melting glacial ice
geothermal energy-
energy produced from the earth’s intense interior heat
midnight sun-
In the Nordic Nations, the start of summer is a public holiday when people celebrate the return of the midnight sun.  In the northernmost territories, the sun never really sets for several weeks in midsummer.  People call the long twilight hours of the evening the white nights

Chapter 16- Central Western Europe

 

France-

What is the capital city of France?

Paris
France is shaped like what?
a hexagon
What river runs through Paris, France?
the Seine River
The Alps-
are a long range of towering snowcapped mountains, Mount Blanc is the tallest peak in the Alps
France was once known as what?
Gaul
dialect-
a variation of a spoken language that is unique to a region or community
Impressionism-
a style of art where painters try to catch visual immpressions made by color, light, and shadows
nationalize-
to bring a business under state control
recession-
an extended decline in business activity
confederation-
a system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government

 Germany-

 

reparations-

 

 

inflation-

reparations- money paid for war damages

 

 

 

 

inflation-  a sharp, widespread rise in prices

What is the capital city of Germany?
Berlin
lignite-
a soft, brownish-black coal
The Benelux Countries-

Belgium

Netherlands

Luxembourg

dikes-

 

 

polders-

dike- an embankment of earth and rock built to hold back water

 

 

 

 

polder- an area of low-lying land that has been reclaimed from the sea

decentralize-
to transfer government power to smaller regions

Switzerland and Austria-

 

cantons-

 

neutral-

canton- a poltical division or state; one of the states in Switzerland

 

 

neutral- not taking sides in a war

perishable good-

 

 

strip mining-

a product that does not stay fresh for long

 

 

 

 

the process whereby miners strip away the surface of the earth to lay bare the mineral deposits

Chapter 17- Spain and Portugal

 

 

navigable-

deep and wide enough to allow the passage of ships
dry farming-
a farming technique that leaves land unplanted every few years in order to gather moisture
sirocco-
a hot, dry wind from northern Africa
hub-
a central point of concentrated activity and influence
What is Spain’s capital city?
Madrid
What is Portugal’s capital city?
Lisbon
What is the name of the piece of land that Spain and Portugal occupy?
The Iberian Peninsula
What is the capital city of Italy?
Rome
Where does the Pope live and the headquarters for the Roman Catholic Church?

Vatican City

 

It is considered it’s own country and it is also called the Holy See

seismic activity-
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
subsidence-
a geological phenomenon in which the ground in an area sinks
mezzogiorno-
the southern region of Italy and includes the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, the name means midday for its intense noontime sun

volcano-

 

 

 

 

lava-

 

volcano- an opening in the earth’s crust from which molten rock escapes to the surface

 

 

lava- magma, or molten rock from the earth’s mantle, that breaks through the surface of the earth during volcanic activity

plume-

 

 

crater lake-

plume- a very hot spot in the earth’s mantle

 

 

 

 

crater lake- a body of water that occupies a bowl-shaped depression around the opening of an extinct or dormant volcano

Greece-

 

 

grabens-

grabens- a long, narrow area that has dropped between two faults
What is the capital city of Greece?
Athens
inhabitable-
able to permanent residents

Chapter 18- Introduction to Central Europe and Northern Eurasia

 

 

domestication-

domestication-the process of training and breeding animals for use by humans
communism-
a system of government in which the government controls the means of production, determining what goods will be made, how much workers will be paid, and how much items cost
Eurasia-

the view that Europe and Asia should be viewed as a large single continent

 

also the area where Europe touches Asia

 

the dividing line between the two continents is the Ural Mountains in Russia

Lake Baikal-
in Russia, world’s deepest lake

taiga-

 

 

 

 

steppe-

taiga- thinly scattered, coniferous forests found in Europe and Asia

 

 

 

 

steppe- a temperate grassland found in Europe and Asia

multiethnic-

 

 

 

 

ethnic group-

multiethnic-composed of many ethnic groups

 

 

 

ethnic group- people who share such things as culture, language, and religion

infant mortality-

 

 

maternal mortality-

 

life expectancy-

infant mortality- the number of children per 1,000 live births who die within the first year

 

maternal mortality- the number of women who died due to pregnancy and childbirth complications per 100,000 live births

 

life expectancy- the number of years an individual is expected to live as determined by statistics

 

What is the capital city of Poland?
Warsaw
national identity-
a people’s sense of what makes them a nation
ghettos
a section of a city in which a particular minority group is forced to live

Holocaust-

 

 

 

 

genocide-

the execution of 6 million Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II

 

 

the systematic killing or intentional destruction of a people

What two countries used to be combined forming Czechoslovakia?

Czech Republic

Slovakia

Capital of Czech Republic?

 

 

Capital of Slovakia?

Prague

 

 

Bratislava

velvet revolution-

 

 

privatization-

a revolution without bloodshed, which took place in Czechoslovakia during the late 1980’s

 

 

 

the process of selling government owned industries and businesses to private owners

collective farms-
a government owned farm managed by workers who share the profits from their produce
What is Hungary’s capital city?
Budapest

What is Switzerland’s capital city?

 

What is Austria’s capital city?

Bern

 

 

Vienna

What is Norway’s capital city?

 

What is Sweden’s capital city?

 

 

What is Finland’s capital city?

Oslo

 

 

Stockholm

 

 

Helsinki

The Balkan Peninsula-

 

Romania

Bulgaria

Albania

Serbia

Montenegro

Croatia

Slovenia

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Macedonia

Kosovo

balkanize-

 

entrepreneurs-

 

 

multiplier effect-

to break up into small, mutually hostile political units, as occurred in the Balkans after WWI

 

a go-getter individual who starts and builds a business

 

the effect an investment has in multiplying related jobs throughout the economy

What is NATO?
Baltic States-

Lithuania

Estonia

Latvia

diversify-
to increase the variety of
Border Nations-

Ukraine

Belarus

Moldova

What was Chernobyl?
What is the capital city of Ukraine?
Kiev

Chapter 20- Russia

 

What does the U.S.S.R. stand for?

Union of Soviet Socialists Republics

 

old communist name for Russia when it was the Soviet Union

What is the capital city of Russia?
Moscow
chernozem-
a rich topsoil found in the Russian steppes and other mid-latitude grasslands

Siberia-

 

 

permafrost-

part of northern Russia where the climate is very frigid

 

 

a layer of soil just below the earth’s surface that stays permanently frozen

czar-

 

 

Romanov Dynasty-

an emperor of Russia

 

 

 

The Romanov family ruled Russia for 300 years before WWI and the Bolshevik communists took over Russia and made it the Soviet Union

abdicate- to surrender one’s office, throne, or authority

 

 

 

 

soviet- in the former Soviet Union, any one of various governing councils

give up the throne

 

 

 

 

governing council

Cold War-

 

 

glasnost-

 

 

 

perestroika-

Cold War- time period after WWII with tension between the United States and Soviet Union without any actual war

 

a policy of openess introduced in the Soviet Union in the late 1980’s

 

 

in the former Soviet Union, a policy of economic restructuring

Vladimir Lenin-  first communist leader of the Soviet Union

 

 

 

Joseph Stalin- communist leader of the Soviet Union, very ruthless, had lots of his own people killed if anyone didn’t go along with his laws

Mikhail Gorbachev-
last of the communist leaders of the Soviet Union, instituted the policies of glasnost and perstroika.  Helped to end communism in Russia

Chechnya-

 

 

 

Dagestan-

Trans Siberian Railroad-

 

 

ruble-

 

 

 

black market-

railroad going across Russia

 

 

Russian currency (money)

 

 

the system of selling goods and services outside of officials channels, selling off the record, without paperwork, illegally

Chapter 21- Introduction to Southwest Asia

 

agricultural revolution-

the change from nomadic hunting and gathering to farming that took place about 8000 B.C.

civilization-

 

 

 

monotheism-

 

polytheism-

an advanced culture

 

 

 

the belief in one God

 

 

the belief in many gods

protectorate-
an area that has its own government but is controlled by an outside power

Aral Sea-

 

 

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers-

 

 

Caucasus Mountains-

Soviet engineers diverted water from the rivers that feed the Aral Sea, a land locked salt lake, to irrigate farmland in Central Asia.  The sea has sunk dramatically, and salt flats now cover the exposed lake bed

 

Two rivers mentioned in the Bible in the Garden of Eden and run through present day Iraq

 

mountains that separate the country of Georgia and Russia

yurt-

 

 

mosque-

 

 

 

a round tent made of a wooden framework and covered with felt of skins

 

 

 

An Islamic place of religious worship

Jerusalem-

capital city of Israel

 

 

sacred religious city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims

What country is the Ataturk Dam in ?
Turkey

trade deficit-

 

 

 

trade surplus-

the situation in which a country imports more than it exports

 

 

 

the situation in which a country exports more than it imports

Chapter 22- The Caucasus and Central Asian Countries

 

 

Caucasus Nations-

Georgia

Armenia

Azerbaijan

nationalism-
pride in one’s nation; the desire of a cultural group to rule themselves as a separate nation
Central Asian Nations-

Kazakhstan

Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan

Kyrgyzstan

Tajikistan

fundamentalism-

 

 

 

desertification-

a set of religious beliefs based to a strict interpretation of a sacred text

 

 

 

the transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention

Chapter 23- The Countries of Southwest Asia

 

The Middle East

 

mandate-

a comission from the League of Nations authorizing a nation to govern a territory

Zionist-

 

 

 

 

self-determination-

A member of a movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state

 

 

 

the right of a people to decide their own political future

What is the capital city of Israel?

 

 

 

 

drip irrigation-

Jerusalem

 

 

a process by which precisely controlled amounts of water drip directly onto plants from pipes, thus preserving precious water resources in dry areas

potash-

 

 

Arab-

a mineral used in explosives and fertilizer

 

 

 

a person of middle eastern descent that lived in Palestine

What two groups fight over Israel?
Jews and the Arabs
What did the Arabs call Israel?
Palestine

Fertile Crescent-

 

 

 

 

 

militia-

a region in the Middle East where farming and the first civilizations developed

 

 

a citizen army

anarchy-

 

 

 

embargo-

political disorder and violence; lawlessness

 

 

 

a severe restriction of trade with other countries

desalination-

 

 

 

 

the process of removing salt from seawater so that it can be used for drinking and irrigation

 

 

 

falaj system-

 

 

 

 

secular-

In the Arabian Peninsula, an ancient system of underground and surface canals

 

 

worldly, not relating to religion

shah-

 

 

ayatollahs-

the title of the former ruler of Iran

 

 

 

a religious leader among Shiite Muslims

Sahel-
a region just south of the Sahara in Africa

colonialism-

 

 

 

 

 

nomadic herding-

the system by which countries set up colonies to secure sources of raw materials and markets for their products

 

 

 

 

the practice of moving flocks to different pastures throughout the year

leaching-

 

 

 

land degradation-

the dissolving and washing away of nutrients in the soil

 

 

 

reduction in the productive potential of the land

Chapter 25- North Africa

 

 

fellaheen-

Egyptian peasants

sandstorm-

 

 

 

bazaar-

a windstorm that blows hot air, dust, and grit

 

 

 

an open-air market; a street lined with shops and stalls

 

basin irrigation-

 

 

 

 

reservior-

in Egypt, a sytem by which water and silt were controlled by embankments and time-released to irrigate farmlands

 

 

 

a natural or artificial lake used to collect water for human needs

perennial irrigation-
an irrigation system that provides necessary water to the land throughout the year

capital-

 

 

 

What is the capital city of Egypt?

 

wealth in the form of money or property owned or used in business 

 

 

 

 

Cairo

wadi-

 

 

 

caravan-

 a usually dry riverbed or gully that temporarily holds water from a sudden downpour

 

 

 

a large group of merchants who join together to travel in safety

What are the Maghreb Countries?

Algeria

Tunisia

Morocco

Western Sahara Morroco

medina-

 

 

 

souk-

the old section of a North African city, usually centered around a mosque

 

 

a market in an Arab community

What country was Muammar Qaddafi from?

Libya

 

 

he was Libya’s dictator leader for 40years

Chapter 26- West and Central Africa

 

 

 

 

shifting agriculture-

the practice of farming a sight until the soil is exhausted, then moving on to a new site

forage-

 

 

 

 

 

refugee-

food for grazing animals

 

 

 

 

 

a person who flees his or her country to escape danger or unfair treatment

landlocked-
almost or entirely surrounded by land; cut off from the sea

inland delta-

 

 

 

coup-

an area of lakes, creeks, and swamps away from the ocean

 

 

 

 

the sudden overthrow of a ruler or government, often involving violent force or the threat of force

ancestor worship-

 

 

 

 

animism-

the belief that respecting and honoring one’s ancestors will cause them to live on in the spirit world after death

 

 

 

the religious belief that such things as the sky, rivers, and trees contain gods or spirits

World Bank-

 

 

 

 

 

International Monetary Fund-

an agency of the United Nations that provides loans to countries for development projects

 

 

 

 

An agency of the United Nations that provides loans to countries for development projects

structural adjustment program-
a program to reform the structure of an economy
What used to be the name of the Congo River in Africa?
Zaire River

watershed-

 

 

 

 

mercenaries-

a dividing ridge between two basins

 

 

 

 

professional soldiers hired by a foreign country

barter-
the exchange of goods without money

Chapter 27- East and Southern Africa

 

 

harambee-

a policy of cooperation adopted in Kenya after independence to encourage economic growth

pyrethrum-

 

 

 

malnutrition-

a pesticide produced from certain flowers

 

 

disease caused by a lack of food or an unbalanced diet

strategic value-

 

 

 

ethnocracy-

importance of a place or thing for nations planning military actions

villagization-

 

 

apartheid-

a political movement by which rural people are forced to move to towns and work on collective farms

 

 

 

formly in the Republic of South Africa, the policy of strict racial segregation

segregated-

 

 

 

 

 

sanctions-

the separation of the races

 

 

 

 

 

actions taken by the international community to punish a country for unacceptable behaviors

Who was the first black president of South Africa?
Nelson Mandela

enclave-

 

 

 

white flight-

a country completely surrounded by another country

 

 

 

the departure of white people from a region

Chapter 28- Introduction to South Asia

 

 

 

 

sultanate-

a state ruled by a sultan

nonaligned nations-

 

 

 

subcontinent-

nations that adopted neutrality during the Cold War

What is the world’s tallest mountain range?

 

 

 

 

What is the tallest mountain peak?

The Himalayas in Nepal

 

 

 

Mt. Everest in the Himalayas

monsoons-

 

 

 

 

What country has bollywood?

 

a seasonal shift in the prevailing winds that influences large climate regions 

 

 

 

 

India

Chapter 29- The Countries of South Asia

 

 

Who was Mohandas Gandhi?

later called Mahatma or Great Soul, led India to independence.  Used nonviolent resistance against British injustice and boycotts of British cloth

nonviolent resistance-

 

 

 

boycott-

the policy of opposing an enemy or oppressor by any means other than violence

 

 

 

 

to refuse to purchase or use a product or service as an expression of disapproval

partition-

 

 

 

 

reincarnation-

a division into separate parts

 

 

 

 

the belief that the soul of a human being or animal goes through a series of births, deaths, and rebirths

caste sytem-

 

 

 

charpoy-

a social hierarchy in which a person possesses a distinct rank in society that is determined by birth

 

 

 

a wooden bed frame with knotted string in place of a mattress

sari-

 

 

 

 

purdah-

a brightly colored cloth, worn by many Indian women, that is draped over the body like a long dress

 

 

 

 

the practice among Hindu and Muslim women of covering the face with a veil when outside the home

joint family system-

 

 

 

hydroelectric power-

In India, the custom of housing all members of an extended family together

 

 

 

electricity that is generated by moving water

embankment dam-

 

 

 

buffer state-

a wall of soil and rock to hold back water

 

 

 

 

a country that separates two hostile countries

tornado-

 

 

 

 

storm surge-

a funnel shaped cloud of violently rotating air

blizzard-

 

 

 

tropical cycloon

 

 

typhoon-

a heavy snowfall accompanied by strong winds

 

a storm that originates over a tropical ocean and whirls around a low pressure center

 

 

destructive tropical storm that forms over the Pacific Ocean

Chapter 30- Introduction to East Asia and the Pacific World

 

 

 

 

concessions-

a priviledge or exemption granted by a government
bullet train-

a high- speed train

 

 

we studied about one in Japan

Chapter 31- China

 

 

 

spheres of influence-

an area or country that is politically and economically dominated by, though not directly governed by, another country
The Long March-
In China in the 1920’s a split developed between the National Party and Communists.  The Nationalist leader- Chiang Kai-shek disagreed and ordered the communists killed.  the communists fled to south central China.  In 1934, the Communists left their spot  and started a year long northward journey called the Long March crossing 18 mountain ranges and 20 rivers over 6,000 miles and Mao Zedong became leader of the Communists

Mao Zedong-

 

 

 

 

Deng Xiaoping-

First communist leader of China

 

 

 

Became the leader after Mao Zedong

light industry-

 

 

 

 

martial law-

the production of small consumer goods such as clothing and appliances
What is the capital city of China?

Beijing

 

 

 

What are the four geographical regions of China?

The Northeast

The Southeast

The Northwest

The Southwest: Tibet  (Xizang)

Where is the Gobi Desert?
in China and Mongolia
What are the other names for the Huang He River?

Yellow River

China’s Sorrow

double cropping-

 

 

 

 

What is another river in China?

in farming, growing more than one crop a year on the same land 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yangzi River

theocract-

 

 

 

 

Dalai Lama-

someone who claims to rule by religious or divine authority

 

 

The leader of Tibet of Buddhist monks

autonomous region-

 

 

 

 

 

a political unit with limited self-government 

 

example of one is Tibet

ideograms-

 

 

 

 

 

Atheism-

in written language, a character or symbol that represents an idea or thing

In Chinese stands for a word

 

 

 

the belief that God does not exist

acupuncture-

 

 

 

 

 

Tai Chi-

the ancient Chinese practice of inserting fine needles at specific body points to cure disease or to ease pain

 

 

 

 

martial art and exercise performed by Chinese and other Asian peoples

provisional government-

 

 

 

exodus-

a temporary government pending permanent arrangements

 

 

 

a mass migration from a region

Chapter 32- Japan and the Koreas

 

 

 

What is the capital city of Japan?

Tokyo

seismographs-

 

 

 

 

capsule hotel-

instruments that measure and record movement in the earth’s crust

 

 

 

to save space in Japan, people rent tiny rooms stacked together called a capsule hotel

homogeneous-
having a similar nature; uniform in structure or quality

imperialism-

 

 

 

 

militarism-

 

the efforts to control weaker countries that are rich in natural resources.

Japan tried to do this

 

the glorification of the military and a readiness for war

downsize-

 

 

 

tariffs-

 

 

quotas-

to fire an employee in order to reduce costs

 

 

 

a tax imposed by a government on imported goods

 

a fixed quantity

demilitarized zone-

a strip of land on which troops or weapons are not allowed

 

Area between North and South Korea

proliferation-
an increase in the number of something

Chapter 23- Southest Asia

 

 

barbarians-

persons without manners or civilized customs

paddy-

 

 

indigenous-

irrigated or flooded land on which rice is grown

 

 

 

 

native to or living naturally in an area or environment

insurgents-

 

 

 

What is the old name for the country Myanmar?

 

people who rebel against their government 

 

 

 

 

 

Burma

What 3 countries was once known as French Indochina?

Vietnam

Cambodia

Laos

What country used to be known as the Dutch East Indies?
Indonesia
heterogeneity-
a lack of similarity

Chapter 34- The Pacific World and Antarctica

 

 

 

Australia

 

What are the original people from Australia called?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aborigines

lagoon-
a shallow body of water separated from the sea by coral reefs or sandbars

outback-

 

 

 

 

 

What is Uluru?  Also called Ayers Rock

remote, sparsely settled, arid, rural country, especially the central and western plains and plateaus of Australia

 

 

 

 

sacred site to Aborgines, the world’s largest monolith, or single stone located in the outback

artesian wells-

 

 

 

plankton-

wells that are drilled deep enough to tap a layer of porous material filled with groundwater

 

 

 

microscopic floating organisms

Great Barrier Reef-
a natural barrier made up of the bodies of living and dead coral- the largest coral reef in the world off the Sunshine coast (northeastern) of Australia
New Zealand-
country made up of two islands, the north island and the south island, the capital city is Wellington.  Other large cities are Auckland and Christchurch
Capitan James Cook-
In 1770 landed on the east coast of Australia and claimed it for Great Britain, became the first explorer to chart accurately the coast of New Zealand and the east coast of Australia
Pacific Islands are divided into 3 groups-

Micronesia

Melanesia

Polynesia

Name 4 Pacific Islands-

Hawaii

Fiji

Guam

Tahiti

trust territories-
a dependent colony or territory supervised by another country by commission of the United Nations
Antarctica-
one of the 7 continents. not owned by any one country. researchers from different countries share it

crevasses-

 

 

 

ice shelves-

 a deep crack in glacial ice

 

 

 

a massive extension of glacial ice over the sea, often protruding hundreds of miles

pack ice-

 

 

convergence zone-

 

 

 

 

krill-

floating sea ice formed by a mix of icebergs with other ice formed in superchilled ocean waters

 

 

an area of severe storms where the frigid waters circulating around Antarctica meet the warmer waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans

Antarctic Treaty-
in 1961, 12 countries signed it agreeing to share the use of Antartica for reseach and not to do harmful things to the environment.  In 1989, 28 more countries signed it

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